Acid-Base Disturbance – Biomarkers Example

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"Acid-Base Disturbance" is a great example of a paper on biomarkers. Patient 1: pH = 7.25 pCO2 = 70 mmHg HCO3- = 30 mmol/L Respiratory acidosis Patient 2: pH = 7.47 pCO2 = 20 mmHg HCO3- = 14 mmol/L Respiratory Alkalosis Patient 3: pH = 7.32 pCO2 = 28 mmHg HCO3- = 14 mmol/L Metabolic acidosis Patient 4: pH = 7.51 pCO2 = 49 mmHg HCO3- = 38 mmol/L Metabolic alkalosis. The kidney is responsible for compensation Explain what kind of acid-base disturbance a person who is hypoventilating might have and why? What would you expect their CO2 levels to be (high or low from normal) and how is this consistent with your determination? The kind of acid-base disturbance a person who is hypoventilating might have is respiratory acidosis.   This is because it occurs because of alveolar hypoventilation where the production of carbon dioxide occurs rapidly causing a failure of ventilation.

This in turn increases the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (Paco2). The CO2 levels of a person with hypoventilating would be high. This is consistent with my determination in the sense that hypoventilation normally causes respiratory acidosis that is characterized by the rapid production of carbon dioxide that in turn increases the arterial carbon dioxide.   Case 8ACystic FibrosisWhat causes cystic fibrosis?

Describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disease. It is caused by CFTR, which is a faulty gene. The CFTR gene develops a protein that transports salt and water out of a cell. If the gene is defective, it causes a build-up of thick, sticky mucus in the body's tubes and passageways. The mutations in this gene affect the function of the CFTR channels at the cell surfaceThis girl has also had a long history of diarrhea and poor weight gain.

Explain why. Cell abnormality leads to the destruction of the pancreas, which becomes unable to release digestive juices. Therefore, the food is not broken down properly leading to diarrhea and loss of nutrients in the stool that leads to poor weight gain (Appel & Downs, 2008). How would you classify this girl's acid-base status? She has respiratory acidosis because of the decreased arterial blood pH, increased arterial blood pCO2, and normal arterial HCO3.How does cystic fibrosis cause this acid-base imbalance? The pool of excess thick mucus interferes with the small and large airways reducing ventilation and causing hypoventilation.

Therefore, the pCO2 level increases. The excess CO2 reacts with H20 in the blood creating H2CO3 that lower the blood pH. What system is compensating for this acid-base disturbance? KidneysWhat mechanisms does this system have to carry out this compensation? The kidneys compensate for this by increasing the rate of tubular secretion of hydrogen ions into the renal tubules. Case 8BVomitingHow would you classify her acid-base disturbance? Her acid-base imbalance is primary metabolic alkalosisWhy might excessive vomiting cause her particular acid-base disturbance? Excessive vomiting reduces the hydrogen ions from her stomach lumen and bloodstream, which raises her arterial blood Ph.

This causes the acid-base disturbanceWhat system is compensating for this acid-base disturbance? The kidneys compensate for thisWhat mechanisms does this system have to carry out this compensation? The ratio of HCO3- ions to hydrogen ions is increased in the renal tubular fluid. The HCO3- that is excreted to the body raises the arterial blood hydrogen ion concentration (Appel & Downs, 2008).

References

Appel, S. J., & Downs, C. A. (2008). Understanding acid‐base balance. Nursing2014, 38, 9-11.
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