Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Cancer – Cancer&Men Example

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"Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Cancer" is a well-written example of a paper on cancer and men. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are a growing concern for the health community in terms of the male population. Increasing age is considered to be an important factor in both the development of BPH and prostatic carcinoma. BPH develops in the central or transitional zone of the prostate whereas cancer develops in the peripheral zone of the gland. BPH is said to be associated with chronic inflammation due to immune-mediated causes whereas cancer may be a sequela of BPH, or it may be related to hereditary causes.

A family history of prostatic cancer is said to be linked to carcinoma in the coming generations. BPH is related to urinary tract symptoms as the gland may grow enough to cause problems during micturition. The Digital Rectal Examination is an important tool which can be used in diagnosing prostate cancer, as it usually arises from the posterior portion of the prostate. One important differentiating factor between these two is that BPH may cause symptoms early in the disease whereas prostate cancer may not cause any symptoms for many years (De et al. , 2011; Kopp, Freedland, & Parsons, 2011). Significance of PSA Testing Prostate-specific antigen is a common indicator of malignant disease, and it should be analyzed when ruling out prostate cancer.

The role of PSA was previously thought to be related to the detection of prostatic cancer; however, with growing awareness, it has been found that PSA is a rather strong prognostic factor. In order to diagnose prostatic cancer, it has become necessary to analyze biomarkers such as human glandular kallikrein 2, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and others along with PSA.

PSA, on the other hand, can help to predict the malignancy of cancer and the viability of the treatment that is being offered (Shariat et al. , 2011). Treatment Plans for BPH and Prostate Cancer It has been found that BPH is related to inflammation, and hence the treatment plan revolves around the drugs which may decrease this inflammation. Alpha-blockers are also recommended to the patients suffering from BPH. Phytotherapy and vitamin D receptor agonists can be given to effectively reduce the chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.

Similarly, NSAIDS and immunotherapy can also be effective for patients who are suffering from BPH (Kramer et al. , 2011)On the other hand, prostate cancer should be diagnosed early, and its treatment options vary from radiological therapy to surgical therapy. The surgical approach that is considered to be superior is known as radical prostatectomy. For certain malignant tumours, androgen deprivation therapy is also recommended along with radiation therapy (Heidenreich et al. , 2011). Patient Education Plan As the individual grows, the chances of BPH and prostatic cancer increase, and hence the general population should be made aware of the prospects of these diseases.

The patients should get a regular checkup in order to exclude any such diseases. Similarly, the patients should conform to the treatment options that they are provided with so that the disease does not recur in any case. Caffeine and alcohol should be avoided by the patients in order to avert the progression of the disease.

References

De, N. C., Kramer, G., Marberger, M., Montironi, R., Nelson, W., Schroder, F., ... Tubaro, A. (July 01, 2011). The controversial relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: The role of inflammation. European Urology, 60(1), 106–117. < http://www.siu.it/app/webroot/img/contacts/127.pdf>

Heidenreich, A., Bellmunt, J., Bolla, M., Joniau, S., Mason, M., Matveev, V., ... Zattoni, F. (January 01, 2011). EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of clinically localised disease. European Urology, 59(1), 61–71. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0302283810010043.

Kopp, R. P., Freedland, S. J., & Parsons, J. K. (January 01, 2011). Associations of benign prostatic hyperplasia with prostate cancer: The debate continues. European Urology, 60(4), 699–700. < http://www.europeanurology.com/article/S0302-2838(11)00742-1/fulltext/associations-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-with-prostate-cancer-the-debate-continues>

Shariat, S. F., Semjonow, A., Lilja, H., Savage, C., Vickers, A. J., & Bjartell, A. (January 01, 2011). Tumor markers in prostate cancer I: blood-based markers. Acta Oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden), 50, 61–75.

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