Adeno Carcinoma of the Left Lung with Metastasis to the Brain, and Spleen – Cancer Example

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"Adeno Carcinoma of the Left Lung with Metastasis to the Brain, and Spleen"  is an excellent example of a paper on cancer. The case of Mr. Jones is an advanced case of lung cancer whose symptoms must have first emerged over twenty years ago. Cancer has since developed to cover various organs such as the brain and spleen in a process called metastasis. It is also evident that Jones’ long years of smoking until when he was 55 have caused other problems such as high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which he has been constantly battling with.

Despite having seceded from smoking after the diagnosis with the condition, Jones must be suffering from withdrawal syndrome which has effectively lead to depression and loss of hope to the point Mr. Jones is not willing to stay in a medical facility but rather stay at home and wait for his death. The case and misery of Mr. Jones are further compounded by the fact that he is not able to take care of his meals due to lack of such finances despite being able to stay in a luxurious environment.

His medication, care, and rehabilitation are more difficult due to a lack of family relations to support him. The scenario so presented implies that Jones is not only suffering physically through the various lung and heart diseases that he is suffering from but psychological and socially through depression as well as loneliness and poor diet if not lack of food. In trying to treat and handle the condition of Mr. Jones, it is necessary to develop an approach that will emphasize his mental well being as well as the physical illness.

Such will involve counseling and care to facilitate the administration of the other forms of medical interventions (Lin & Bauer-Wu, 2003). There are various interventions available for treatment and handling cancer as well as other terminal illness to which Jones's case can be categorized. It should be noted that most metastatic cancers are not curable and therefore can only be managed through the various modes. Collins et al (2007) explain that medications of cancer involve staging in order to identify the appropriate stage of the infection before recommending therapy.

Jones’ case is already diagnosed and so would not require staging as it is clear it is stage IV since it is no longer confined to the chest but has gradually spread to other organs such as the spleen and the brain. After the staging, there are various forms of treatment available which include the removal of the cancerous tumor through surgery and the various therapies-chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The three firms will be decided depending on whether the remedy is intended to be curative or to reduce pain.

In the case of Jones, it has been a long-standing problem that only leaves the option of pain-relieving since the extent of the tumor has affected various organs which are crucial and will vastly be affected by attempts to eliminate the tumor. Surgical removal is only applicable to initial stages I and II when the cancerous cells have not spread beyond the lungs. It is aimed to cure the patient though it is never always curative since the tumor cells could have even spread even at the earliest stages identifiable (West, 2011).

Therefore in the case of Mr. Jones whose case is squarely in stage for, there is no room for surgical removal of the tumor. Radiation therapy is also an avenue used as curative but mainly as preventive and involves the use of x-ray to kill the tumor cells. As a curative therapy the radiations are given in large doses to kill the cancer dividing cells while as palliative therapy, it is given in low doses and used together with surgery and chemotherapy.

This is either internal or external and is very useful where patients can not undergo the surgery to remove the tumor or in cases where the infection is in advanced stages and has affected other organs. For external radiations, the radiations need to be administered at least four times a week, an aspect which will mean the patient having access to the x-ray facility during the treatment period (Walker, 2006). To some degree it serves, if only as a palliative measure, in the case of Mr. Jones but the difficulty arises since he is not willing to stay away from home and definitely, x-ray facility is not at home. The other treatment, chemotherapy involves administering drugs that inhibit or kill the cancerous cells.

Österlind (2006) argues that chemotherapy has proven to be most effective in most cases and is always used in conjunction with the surgical method together with radiation to cure cancer in most stages especially before it spreads. It has the metastasized cells; chemotherapy can only prolong life but cannot cure. This is therefore not appropriate for the distinctive feature of being capable of reaching most parts of the body to kill the cells.

In the case of 75-year-old Jones, who stays alone and will find it difficult to use the drugs alone, this method is not effective. Other methods, although still being explored, include prophylactic radiation, targeted therapy, and photodynamic therapy. Another model of care for persons with terminal illness as in the case of Mr. Jones is hospice. Hospice is care that focuses on the quality of patients of terminal illnesses. According to Classen et al.

(2001), it is all-inclusive care that is not only concerned with the body but also the spiritual well being of the patient. It ensures comfort to the patient and the services can always be offered at specially designated places or at the home of the patient. Hospice care will ensure that the person receives medication, spiritual counseling as well as other forms of needs such as food while it gives room for the patient to approach death with joy. The patient will have people who take care of the food called caregivers as well as physicians and chaplains attending for their medical and spiritual needs.

Hospice will pursue and facilitate the insurance plan to pay for the medication and other costs. Since Mr. Jones does not have a relation, cannot take care of his meals and his ready to stay at home and wait for his death, this is the most appropriate treatment plan for him.

References

Classen, C., Butler, L. D., Koopman, C. et al. (2001).Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy and Distress in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer, Arch Gen Psychiatry, 58:494- 501.

Collins, L. G., Haines, C., Perkel, R., and Enck, R. E. (2007). Lung Cancer: Diagnosis and Management, American Family Physician, 75(1):56-63.

Lin, H. and Bauer-Wu, S. M. (2003).Psycho-spiritual well-being in patients with advanced cancer: an integrative review of the literature, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 44(1):69-80

Österlind, K. (2006). Lung cancer. Abingdon: Health.

Walker, J. (2006). Lung cancer: current and emerging trends in detection and treatment. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

West, B. S. (2011). Lung cancer treatment. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers.

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