"Approach Care to Cancer" is a brilliant example of a paper on cancer. The effects of cancer are taking a tremendous global human toll and is increasingly becoming a major threat the developing nations as well as the middle class in developed nations. Limited researches have been conducted to determine the economic effects ascribed to the effects of cancer in various states and regions (American Society of Cancer 2011). However, a study by a collaboration between the Livestrong Group and the American Cancer Society has indicated that cancer is among the most dangerous abnormality that has greater negative impacts on the economy of any society (American Society of Cancer 2011). Additionally, cancer is one of the diseases that cause high levels of the loss of lives of a large number of people annually.
The economic costs that are incurred from the effects of cancer are a result of the cases of premature deaths as well as disabilities that may arise. Apart from the economic effects of cancer, the study also indicated that cancer has led to various negative societal effects for instance: Stigmatization specifically, in societies where there is limited or complete lack of awareness of how to deal with victims and survivors of cancer (American Society of Cancer 2011). Cancer Diagnosis Most cancerous diseases are identified due to the symptoms they indicate when they are screened.
However, none of these symptoms may lead to descriptive diagnosis hence creating the need to seek the ideas and perception of a pathologist or a cancer specialist. The pathologist has the knowledge and skills required to conduct examination and investigation geared towards determining whether the symptoms are a result of cancer (Howland 2012). Investigation During the investigation, individuals suspected to be suffering from cancerous cells are subjected to various medical tests such as endoscopy, blood tests, X-rays in addition to CT scans. Biopsy This is the first step applied when conducting a histological examination of a patient suspected to be suffering from cancerous cells.
It is conducted by a qualified pathologist and it entails; extraction of tissue from the body part that is suspected to have been affected by the cancerous cells. Simple biopsies are usually conducted in the pathologist office, they include; liver, breast, and skin.
Another complicated tissue extraction is usually conducted in modified surgery rooms or even rooms meant for operation services (Howland 2012). After extracting the tissue, the pathologist determines the various or specific cells that indicate symptoms of proliferation, the histological datum, its genetical abnormalities as well as other facets associated with it. The attainment of such information is imperative in the sense that, it facilitates the patient’ s prognosis evaluation and the determination of the best alternative for treatment. Advancement in technology has also led to the development of other testing methods like; immunohistochemistry together with cytogenetic that enables the pathologists to determine the molecular variations including Chromosome variations, cell mutations in addition to cell fusions, hence they are pertinent in the prediction of future cell variation and determination of most appropriate treatment methods (Howland 2012). Cancer Staging The medical concept of cancer staging is imperative in the sense that it enables the medical practitioners or the pathologists to determine the degree the number of cancerous cells that may be available in the body of a patient.
There is various importance of the staging to both the pathologists or doctors and the patients (Cancer. NET n. d). The first importance of staging cancer is that it enables the pathologists to extract imperative information that is applied to predict the patient’ s prognosis.
This is due to the fact that cancerous cells that occur at the same stage usually exhibit similarities in their appearances hence may require similar treatment methods (Cancer. NET n. d). Moreover, staging assists the pathologists to exchange information concerning the condition of a particular patient that may require the attention of two or more pathologists.
The staging process also facilitates the process by which the doctors select the best treatment methods for their patients for example: The early treatment of mild breast cancer cells may need less complicated methods like the radiation of even minor surgery while extreme cancerous effects may require more complicated methods like chemotherapy. Pertinent Information Gathered During Staging During cancer staging, the pathologists are usually interested in some particular data such as The original tumors which are also scientifically referred as primary cancer. Other new cancerous cells that might have developed are also identified.
Thorough medical checks are also conducted on the surrounding lymph node to determine if the cancerous cells have extended into them (Cancer. NET n. d). Methods of Cancer Staging During cancer staging, the pathologists usually collect different pertinent information related to the cancerous sales to determine its development stage. Physical evaluation conducted on the patients may assist in determining the amount of cancer available on the body of the patient depending on the part under evaluation. Methods such as PET scans, x-rays, CT scans, MRI’ s as well as ultrasound are mostly used in staging cancer.
Furthermore, a biopsy is usually conducted to provide a confirmation of the actual image provided by the test to determine whether they are cancerous cells or not. There two major types of cancer staging; the first type of cancer staging is referred to as pathologic staging. Pathological staging depends on the data gathered from the patient’ s body during surgery. That is, in some cases, surgery may be conducted with an aim of determining the level of cancerous cells exist in a specific part of the body. The second type of cancer staging is referred to as clinical staging, a process that entails the utilization of testing methods like CT scans and x-rays to determine the number of cancerous cells in the body of a patient. The complication of Cancerous Cells One of the health complications that affect most cancer patients is bone complication; this complication occurs when the cancerous cell extends to the bone areas hence causing effects associated with extreme pain through the weakening of the bones.
This condition also makes the bones more vulnerable to other effects such as a bone fracture or even extremely high levels of calcium in the blood of the patient (Gordon 2008). There are also emotional effects associated with cancer; these effects may occur as a result of the loss of lives associated with cancerous cells.
Other emotional effects may occur due to stigmatization the general occurs in societies characterized by a lack of awareness concerning cancer patients. These emotional effects may lead to psychological challenges such as stress, apathy, extreme grief, and domestic challenges like broken marriages. Extreme effects of cancerous cells may also lead to loss of lives; death may occur when the cancerous cells cannot be tamed or even extracted to reduce their effects.
Bone cancer, brain cancer, and cancers that affect the production system may lead to loss of lives (Gordon 2008). Side Effects of Cancer Treatment The various treatment methods of cancer may cause different side effects some may be minor while some may have adverse effects. One of the treatment methods that have been realized to have side effects is chemotherapy; its side effects include low libido, loss of appetite, blood clots et cetera.
The side effects are usually minor in nature and may take a short duration to disappear Chemocare n. d). The other side effect of cancer treatment associated with radiation therapy is skin rashes, loss of appetite, and tiredness. Despite the fact that the side effects of radiation may e adversarial, various forms of treatment may be offered by the pathologist or the doctors. The third side effect of cancer treatment occurs from treatment processes like surgery which may cause pain which may result from the surgery wounds (Gordon 2008). Conclusion The side effects that result from the treatment of cancer are generally manageable; it is therefore imperative that persons discuss any cases of pain or abnormality with their pathologists.
This will ensure that proper solutions to the complications are provided in time. Additionally, counseling may be used to relieve cancer patients from any psychological stress they may face.
Chemocare. (n.d.). Chemotherapy - Chemocare. Retrieved November 28, 2012, from http://www.chemocare.com
Cancer.Net | Oncologist-approved cancer information from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. (n.d.). Cancer.Net | Oncologist-approved cancer information from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved November 28, 2012, from http://www.cancer.net
Gordon, R. (2008). Bone Complications and Cancer. Buckingham [UK: Cancer Consultation Inc..
Howland, M. (2012). Cancer Diagnosis (233-311 ed.). New York : AzoNetworks.
American Society of Cancer.(2011). Global Economic Cost of Cancer. Atlanta: LIVESTRONG.