Breast Cancer – Cancer Example

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"Breast Cancer" is a wonderful example of a paper on cancer. One of women’ s greatest fears is to be diagnosed with breast cancer. Despite the availability of a wealth of information on breast cancer to diagnose, prevent, and identify risk factors, the number of new breast cancer cases still continue to emerge. The American Cancer Society (ACS) revealed that “ an estimated 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed among women in the US during 2013; about 2,240 new cases are expected in men” (American Cancer Society, 2013, p.

9). The current discourse hereby aims to present ways for early detection, the signs and symptoms, the risk factors and recommended treatment for breast cancer.                       Early detection had been revealed to be one of the most plausible and supported manners to avert imminent dangers for diagnosing breast cancer at advanced stages. Early detection was defined as “ using an approach that lets breast cancer get diagnosed earlier than otherwise might have occurred” (American Cancer Society, 2013, p. 1). The World Health Organization (WHO) has indicated that “ the objective of an early detection programme is diagnosing cancer at its earliest stages when it is localized to the organ of origin, without metastasis to other organs or the surrounding tissue” (World Health Organization, 2006, p.

24). The guidelines that provide directional approach for women at risk include educating the public and enjoining health care professionals for continuing education and promotion of awareness. Breast self-examination (BSE), screening tests (clinical breast exam (CBE), mammogram, and MRI) must be conducted, as part of the early detection program. Explicitly, the ACS recommends BSE as early as age 20 onwards, with CBE every three years.

Likewise, women at age 40 onwards should have yearly mammogram, as advised (American Cancer Society, 2013).                       The risk factors for preponderance to breast cancer are identified as follows: (1) being female; (2) age (the older, the higher risk); (3) genetic; (4) family history; (5) personal history (having developed cancer in one breast); (6) race and ethnicity (with White women identified to have higher risk); (7) dense breast tissue; (8) early onset of menstruation and longer menstrual period; (9) previous exposure to chest x-rays; and (10) lifestyle related factors (not having children or having children at over 30 years of age; use of birth control pills; breastfeeding; alcohol consumption; overweight; and physical activity) (American Cancer Society, 2013).                       The signs and symptoms for breast cancer are disclosed, to wit: (1) manifestation of a mass or lump; (2) swelling of a part of the breast; (3) skin irritation; (4) pain in the nipple area; (5) “ redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin; and (6) a nipple discharge other than breast milk” (American Cancer Society, 2013, p.

13).                       Finally, treatment of breast cancer was recommended depending on the “ tumor size, extent of spread, and other characteristics, as well as patient preference, treatment usually involves breast-conserving surgery (surgical removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue) or mastectomy (surgical removal of the breast)” (American Cancer Society, 2013, p. 10).   Other treatment methods which were noted included “ radiation therapy, chemotherapy (before or after surgery), hormone therapy (e. g., selective estrogen response modifiers, aromatase inhibitors, ovarian ablation), or/or targeted therapy” (American Cancer Society, 2013, p.

10).                       The current discourse has successfully presented the crucial facts relating to breast cancer. By identifying the population at risk, the signs and symptoms, the early detection guidelines, as well as treatment options, awareness on the relevant concerns pertinent to breast cancer has been aptly provided and would enable health care practitioners to apply the needed interventions, as required.


American Cancer Society. (2013). Breast Cancer: Early Detection. Retrieved from

American Cancer Society. (2013). Cancer Facts & Figures 2013. Retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2006). Guidelines for the early detection and screening of breast cancer. Retrieved from

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