The Necessity of Routine Colonoscopy Diverticulitis – Cancer Example

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"The Necessity of Routine Colonoscopy Diverticulitis" is a great example of a paper on cancer. Colorectal cancer ranks second in cancer attributed mortality in the United States and in a number of European states. Colonoscopy is identified as a more efficacy deterrent and treatment solution for colorectal cancer mortality compared to earlier colorectal cancer therapy procedures such as sigmoidoscopy. A number of epidemiology studies on the efficacy of colonoscopy in the deterrence, detection, and treatment of colorectal cancer support its superiority as a remedy for colorectal cancer mortality (Ali, R., Dooley, C., Comber, H., Newell, J.

and Egan, L. 2011, 585). VA Cooperative Study-380 research established the efficacy of colonoscopy in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer-associated distal adenomas lesions beyond the limits accomplished by sigmoidoscopy, which was limited to the detection of distal adenomas lesions. This research overcame the handle of colorectal cancer detection in advanced cases of proximal neoplasia characterized by a statistical misnomer in the distribution of adenomas in the distal and proximal colon (Classen, M. 2010, 45).   The research demonstrated the enhanced efficacy of colonoscopy in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer through the correction of a statistical anomaly in the distribution of adenomas in the proximal and distal colon in advance cases of dysplasia (Brenner, H., Chang-Claude, J., Seiler, C., Rickert, A.

and Hoffmeister, M. 2010,23).                       Under colonoscopy, the research was able to delineate three distinct types of adenomatous polyps with only one category of adenomatous polyp established as a prognosis for colorectal cancer (Messmann, H. and Barnert, J. 2006, 23). The other two types of adenomatous polyps were established as non-malignant adenoma or polyps attributable to non-malignant colon disorders such as diverticulitis.

Colonoscopy was thus established to improve the efficacy of colorectal cancer diagnosis through an in-depth screening for polyp and adenoma lesions in the distal and proximal colon (Sharp, L., et al. 2013, 105). This in-depth screening circumvents the inefficiency of sigmoidoscopy in screening the distal section of the colon. Colonoscopy thus presents a more realistic or empirical prognosis of distal and proximal adenoma or polyp in the colon as opposed to the generalized localization of sigmoidoscopy screening to the distal section of the colon (Triadafilopoulos, G.

2009, 1827). This also addresses the anomalous distribution of proximal and distal adenoma or polyp in cases of colon dysplasia. In addition, colonoscopy screening avoids an overlap in the prognosis of colorectal cancer and diverticulosis (Dachman, A.H. and Laghi, A. 2011, 67). Despite the importance of adenoma and polyp lesions in the colon as clinical prognosis of both colorectal cancers, research has established that adenoma and polyps lesions in the colon are not exclusively malignant. Colonoscopy thus provides the technique for the dichotomy of malignant and non-malignant causes of adenoma and polyp lesions in the colon (Inadomi, J.

M. and Somsouk, M. 2007, 1384).                                     Colorectal cancer is a pressing health issue in Ireland. This concern principally focuses on the exorbitant cost to the Ireland health care sector that goes to the treatment and management of colorectal cancer cases amongst Ireland citizens (Young, P. E. 2013,219). For instance, management of colorectal cancer cases was estimated to drain the Ireland health care budget off an average of £ 39,607 for lifetime management of a single case of colorectal cancer (Edwards, B.

K. et al. 2010, 556). This increased budgetary cost for the management of colorectal cancer in Ireland is attributed to the poor diagnosis procedures and technology for colorectal cancer concerning the higher resources and costs required in the treatment of advanced stages of colorectal cancer compared to earlier diagnosis (Pearson, R. 2010, 85). The recommendation for a shift from sigmoidoscopy to colonoscopy prognosis technique for colorectal cancer in Ireland’ s health care fraternity is thus commensurate with the reduction of resources and cost for management of colorectal cancer (Tilson, L., et al.

2012, 518).                       A number of limitations for an activist adoption of colonoscopy in the screening and management of colorectal cancer waters down the functional relevance of this research in the management of colorectal cancer in Ireland (Zauber, A. G., et al. 2012, 690). The recommendation for a mandatory colonoscopy therapy after a diverticulitis attack is antagonistic to the very motivation of this research, which is the reduction of resources and costs in the management of colorectal cancer (Pox, C.P. , et al. 2012, 1462). This is concerning the non-malignancy of adenoma or polyp attributed to diverticulitis or any other colon disorder.    

References

Ali, R. A., Dooley, C., Comber, H., Newell, J. & Egan, L. J., 2011. Clinical Features, Treatment, and Survival of Patients With Colorectal Cancer With or Without Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 9(7), pp.584-589.

Brenner, H., Chang-Claude, J., Seiler, C., Rickert, A. & Hoffmeister, M., 2010. Protection from colorectal cancer after colonoscopy: Population-based case-control study. Das Gesundheitswesen, 72(08/09), pp.13-31.

Classen, M., 2010. Gastroenterological endoscopy (2nd ed.). Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme.

Dachman, A. H. & Laghi, A., 2011. Atlas of virtual colonoscopy comprehensive atlas and fundamentals (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

Edwards, B. K. et al., 2010. Annual Report To The Nation On The Status Of Cancer, 1975-2006, Featuring Colorectal Cancer Trends And Impact Of Interventions (risk Factors, Screening, And Treatment) To Reduce Future Rates. Cancer, 116(3), pp.544-573.

Inadomi, J. M. & Somsouk, M., 2007. Will Virtual Colonoscopy Replace Optical Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening? Gastroenterology, 133(4), pp.1384-1385.

Messmann, H. & Barnert, J., 2006. Atlas of colonoscopy techniques, diagnosis, interventional procedures. Stuttgart: Thieme.

Pearson, R., 2010. Once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in prevention of colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Yearbook of Gastroenterology, 2010, pp.84-87.

Pox, C. P., Altenhofen, L., Brenner, H., Theilmeier, A., Stillfried, D. V. & Schmiegel, W., 2012. Efficacy of a Nationwide Screening Colonoscopy Program for Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology, 142(7), pp.1460-1467.e2.

Sharp, L., et al., 2013. Using resource modelling to inform decision making and service planning: the case of colorectal cancer screening in Ireland. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1), p.105.

Tilson, L., et al., 2012. Cost of care for colorectal cancer in Ireland: a health care payer perspective. The European Journal of Health Economics, 13(4), pp.511-524.

Triadafilopoulos, G., 2009. Screening Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer: Imperfect But Still Essential. Gastroenterology, 136(5), pp.1827-1828.

Young, P. E., 2013. Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening. journal of cancer, 4(3), pp.217-226.

Zauber, A. G., et al., 2012. Colonoscopic Polypectomy and Long-Term Prevention of Colorectal-Cancer Deaths. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(8), pp.687-696.

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