"Toward Prevention of Cervical Cancer in South Florida" is a wonderful example of a paper on cancer. This paper examines cases of cervical cancer in the US, Southern Florida. It explores the various types of cervical cancers, most prevalent symptoms and signs of cervical cancer, the reasons for carrying out yearly check-ups for cervical cancer, the risks involved in the treatment and prevention options, the nature of complications, and the community resources that are available to victims of cervical cancer in Southern Florida. Cervical cancer also has been detected in the Southern part of Carolina, Miami, New Jersey, Alabama, Appalachia, and the Northern Plains.
For the case of Florida, there is much to discuss. It is estimated that more than 4000 cases were estimated in the year 2000 in Southern Florida. Out of this number, 1650 of the women passed away. Cancer is a dangerous disease and is of many types. One of them is cervical cancer. This disease has killed many women in the USA. The trend in infection has been rising since time immemorial and contributing to the loss of many lives hence posing a threat to development because a lot of funds are used to contain it.
Most NGOs and state agencies have done their best in stopping this killer disease. Therefore, there is a need to prevent more infections in order to save the lives of many women in America. There are various strategies for minimizing the rate of infection of the disease. Before equipping oneself with the methods of control, it is important that we understand the term cervical cancer. What is cervical cancer? Cancer refers to the growth of cells and body tissues that are malignantly uncontrolled.
Cervical cancer refers to cancer that forms on the cervix among women. Primarily it is caused by an infection of the cervix by any type of the human papillomavirus, which is transmitted by the use of sexual contact (Mackay, Ahmedin, & Nancy, The cancer atlas, 2006). Types of Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer exists in different forms. According to the American Cancer Society (2006), cervical cancer is of different types. The two main types are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
Although rare, the two types have shown some common characteristics (Seiden & Jhingran, 2003). Signs and symptoms At the early stages of development, cervical cancer shows neither signs nor symptoms. Otherwise, the symptoms begin appearing at the advanced stage of development. At this stage, some of the signs include: Pain during coitus During sexual intercourse, victims suffer great pains. It is natural that any infection of the cervix may result in pains during sexual intercourse. However, this does not necessarily mean it is cervical cancer. Other diseases especially STDs cause such pains. However, for cervical cancer, the pain is intense exceeding the normal limits.
Thus, patients should seek advice from health care officers immediately for guidance and pre-cancer tests to establish the cause for pain (American Cancer Society, 2014). Abnormal bleeding through the vagina Abnormal bleeding may be part of the evidence for infection. Oozing of blood especially after sexual intercourse may be a reason for worry. Likewise, excessive bleeding and spotting between monthly periods of women can be a sign of cervical cancer (Society, 2006). Queer vaginal discharge This is another symptom of the development of cervical cancer among women.
The discharge may contain foreign substances such as blood usually during the menstruation period. It occurs among the elderly even after menopause. Importance of cervical cancer checkups On the realization of possible contraction of cervical cancer among women, it is important for one to seek proper medication. Jhingram and Sweiden (2008) suggest that women should attend cervical cancer checkups at least once a year. Check-ups provide victims with the opportunity to evaluate their progress; allows them more time for self-actualization and appreciation of self-image regardless of the situation; determine whether they are still healthy and be able to learn some basic facts about cervical cancer and how to manage it. Risk factors There exist factors that may enhance the spread of the disease among women in Florida.
Although these factors increase the odds of contracting the disease, reports indicate that many women exposed to the risks may not necessarily contract the disease (American Society of Cancer, 2006). Exposure to HPV and STIs The chief risk of the causative agent of cervical cancer is an infection due to the existence of the human papillomavirus.
There are about 160 groups of HPV causing cervical cancer called papilloma. Smoking Smoking promotes chances for the spread of the disease. Smokers and other third parties around them are exposed to chemicals that may cancer. These chemicals not only affect the lungs, as many perceive but also other organs such as the vagina through the bloodstream. Health scholars believe that on reaching the cervix, some of the substances deform the DNA of the cervix leading to cancer (Campbell, Ramirez, & Perez, 2003, p. 64). Diet A lack of a proper and balanced diet may increase the chances of infection.
In Florida, most women who tend to consume fewer meals with fewer fruits have had many problems with their cervixes. On other grounds, it has been established that overweight women are more prone to cervical cancer than others are. Poverty Due to poverty, women in the South of Florida have been diagnosed with cervical cancer because they cannot fund their own habits and take good care of themselves through the application of safety measures against cervical cancer. For instance, many have turned into prostitution to earn living hence increasing chances of infection.
Because of poverty, there are ineffective medical institutions to detect and deal with the disease during its early stages (Arbryn, 2010). Background history There has been historical information on cervical cancers in Florida and some parts of the USA. Families that have had such histories before have had members suffering from the same disease. Experts suggest that some victims have shown similar infections of their ancestors. Other risks Other risk factors include the use of intrauterine devices that may increase in-sterility, contraceptives, diethylstilbestrol, early full-time pregnancies, and effects from the art of many full-time pregnancies. Treatment options and their possible complications There are three common types of treatment in Florida, which include surgery, radiation therapy method, and chemotherapy.
However, the costs involved are high hence making accessibility to medication almost impossible (Campbell, Ramirez, & Perez, 2003, p. 57). Either hospital uses other surgical methods in treating cancers and pre-cancers. These include cryosurgery, laser surgery, hysterectomy, trachelectomy, pelvic exenteration, and pelvic lymph node dissection. Under radiation therapy, energy x-rays are used to destroy the abnormal cells on the cervical wall.
This is called external beam therapy and takes a maximum of seven days. It, however, consumes time, results in stomach problems, and may lead to severe diarrhea and vomiting. In cases where surgery radiation therapy fails, chemotherapy acts as a perfect last resort. It is used in critical situations in combination with topotecan, gemcitabine, cisplatin, and carboplatin. However, this method has its own side effects that include loss of hair, vomiting, nausea, appetite loss, and sores on the mouth (Society, 2006). Community resources There are community resources available to women in the state of Florida.
NGOs like NCCN provide experts that have experience in the field of cervical cancer who provide rules and guidelines to medical doctors when treating victims of cervical cancer. Secondly, the government offers support programs to support women. Conclusion Ultimately, having looked at the types of cancer, risks, cause and prevention and treatment, if measures are taken against the disease it can be managed and controlled since some causative agents are human-created
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Mackay, J., Ahmedin, J., & Nancy, L. (2006). The cancer atlas. American Cancer Society.
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