"Anemias and Other Red Cell Disorders" is a wonderful example of a paper on the cardiovascular system. In order to understand this aspect of Hemoglobinopathies and Thalassemia, it is important to have their definitions down. The structure of the hemoglobin consists of four globin chains, which are linking with four porphyrin rings held together with weak noncovalent bonds. Two α and two β forms the composition of normal hemoglobin A. α globin genes are found in chromosome number 16 while the β globin genes are located in chromosome number 11. The Porphyrin is sigmoid in shape making it easier for them to collect oxygen useful to the body.
With the small basic introduction, Thalassemia is the reduction in the production of β and α globin chains in the blood Wambua et al (2006). Hemoglobinopathies is the structural abnormality affecting α , β , and δ globin chains in the blood. The structural changes are due to mutations taking place in the globin chains in the DNA (Sammy Wambua1, 2006). . The sickle cell disease modification effect on α -thalassemia has a relatively high degree of protection benefiting from the protection of infections such as malaria.
This is because in α -thalassemia most of the genes are deleted during mutation (J. B. Schnog1, 2004). There is also a protective role of HbF%. People with a higher percentage of HbF% experience a higher protection rate than those of lower HbF%. Amongst the lucky ones are those people who have a genetic hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin exceeding more than 20%. However, the advantage lies with the females who possess this character more than the females. Research conducted in Kenya indicates that α -thalassemia confers protection against malaria in most of the endemic areas in the country especially the coastal region like Mombasa.
Similar results supporting these findings also came from New Guinea. In addition to this, the presence of α -thalassemia creates protection to other several diseases apart from malaria. In conclusion, research and data analysis indicate that Hemoglobinopathies result from mutations taking place in the blood resulting in the formation of α -thalassemia which has a protective ability against infections of P. falciparum and other diseases. From the studies, we also conclude that people carrying α -thalassemia are protected against severe infections of malaria especially anemia (Pearson, 2008).
J.B. Schnog1, 2. A. (2004). Sickle cell disease; a general overview. Nerhteherlands Journal of Medicine, Vol 62 Issue No 10 364-374.
Pearson, K. B. (2008). Anemias and Other Red Cell Disorders. California: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Sammy Wambua1, T. W. (2006). The Effect of aþ-Thalassaemia on the Incidence of Malaria and Other Diseases in Children Living on the Coast of Kenya. Plos Medicine Journal, Vol 3 Issue No 5 646-650.