Development of Hypertension – Cardiovascular System Example

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"Development of Hypertension" is a worthy example of a paper on the cardiovascular system. Hypertension development is associated with numerous factors including excess sodium intake, stress, reduced nephron number, genetic predisposition, obesity, and endothelium factors. Some of these factors may interact to produce hypertension in some patients who may have two or more causal factors. For example, genetically predisposed individuals experience the interaction of individual factors where hyperinsulinemia is often associated with other factors such as obesity, sodium sensitivity, endothelium impairments and enhanced sympathetic drive (Vikrant & Tiwari, 2001).

Hypertension can develop from increased sodium intake resulting in renal sodium retention and concomitant increase in fluid volume.   The increased fluid volume leads to increased cardiac output which is directly associated with hypertension development.                       Increased cardiac output can also result from increased contractability associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nerve, a phenomenon connected with stress. Hypertension development can also follow the angiotensin path in which stress leads to the excessive release of renin-angiotensin resulting in functional constriction, hypertrophy, venous constriction and eventual increase in cardiac output (Vikrant & Tiwari, 2001). Common Signs of Hypertension and Effects on Kidney, Brain, and Retina Some of the common symptoms and signs observed in people suffering from hypertension include chronic high blood pressure, headaches, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, heart palpitations, buzzing and strong urge to urinate especially at night among others signs.

The manifestation of different forms of hypertension elicit diverse symptoms and signs, with renal hypertension being marked by headaches, blood in urine, convulsions, and increased frequent urination among other common signs of hypertension. The symptoms for hypertension retinopathy, on the other hand, include yellow hard exudates, cotton-wool spots, arteriovenous nicking and papilledema (Grosso, Veglio, Porta, Grignolo & Wong, 2005).   Finally, hypertension associated with the brain manifest through symptoms such as vision changes and chronic headaches or migraine, buzzing of the ears and frequent nose bleeding. Treatments                       Treatment of brain hypertension or intracranial hypertension includes the use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drugs administered in high doses to suppress the release of cerebral spinal fluid.

In the advanced stages, either optic nerve fenestration or neurosurgical shunt are recommended.   On the other hand, renovascular hypertension is treated through control of blood pressure using drugs such as angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme, which effectively control blood pressure.

Other measures include a change in lifestyles such as stopping smoking and alcohol intake.   Treatment of retinopathy involves controlling blood pressure, diet change and regular exercise and the use of laser in severe conditions (Grosso, Veglio, Porta, Grignolo & Wong, 2005). Effects of Hypertension on the Kidney, Retina and the Brain             Hypertensive retinopathy results in significant damages on the retina including blockage of the retinal arteries, which eventually result in vision loss.

Kidney hypertension on the other hand results in renal failure or kidney failure which may translate to death if surgical interventions are not implemented. Brain hypertension results in staining of brain cells as some of brain arteries burst, development of brain tumors and eventually death.


Grosso, A., Veglio, F., Porta, M., Grignolo, M., & Wong, Y. (2005). Hypertensive retinopathy revisited: Some answers, more questions. British Journal of Ophathalmology, 89 (12), 1646-1654.

Vikrant, S., & Tiwari, C. (2001). Essential hypertension-pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine, 2 (3), 140-161.

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