Sickle Cell Disease – Cardiovascular System Example

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"Sickle Cell Disease"  is an engrossing example of a paper on the cardiovascular system. Cultural FactorsAlthough sickle cell is a global issue, scores of sickle cell sufferers are from a lower socio-economic group, and some cultural factors increase its risk and determine access to medical care. It is prone to Africans, and other sub-Saharan regions that are susceptible to malaria, while its prevalence is low in America. Cultural factors of age, race, and gender determine the quality of treatment and management of the disease. In most healthcare centers, White people perceivably enjoy better care than that of their Black counterparts.

In addition, medical staff concentrates on children more, than they do on adults. Females receive better treatment than males, depending on age and race factors. In minority areas, education and employment levels determine its risk, treatment, and management (Bloom, 2009). Genetic Factors Sickle cell disease is because of gene mutation, specifically the HBB gene. Its inheritance happens in an autosomal recessive pattern, in which there is a mutation in both gene cells, carried by either of the parents. Those at risk inherit a sickle hemoglobin gene from one parent and a normal gene from the other parent.

There is a 25% chance of inheriting both abnormal genes, which result in sickle cell disease. One cannot inherit the disease unless both parents transmit a defective replica of the gene. Its management relies on the combination of genes a person inherits. One may either carry the faulty hemoglobin gene or have sickle cell disease. Those with a mild case take penicillin, while severe cases require a bone marrow transplant (Bloom, 2009). Environmental Factors Environmental factors such as exposure to cold weather and blockage of blood vessels precipitate sickle cell disease.

Aspects of the socio-economic situation are also considerations in environmental factors because one’ s surrounding determines the risk of sickle cell disease. Response to the environment determines a person’ s level of stress that determines behavior and the response of the immune system, which eventually aggravates the disease.   Interpersonal and social processes determine a person’ s response to the environment and the management of the disease. Adaptation of a sickle cell patient to the environment determines the ability to manage the disease.

Changing psychological and environmental factors determine the behavior of genes (Bloom, 2009). Behavioral Factors Health behaviors involve such factors as nutrition, exercise, and smoking. In addition, behavioral factors, such as response to stress, determine the management of sickle cell disease. Pain and fatigue are two symptoms of sickle cell disease, and one’ s behavior and activities determine the management of the pain. For instance, exercise may result in fatigue and pain that hinder the quality of life. A clinician can identify the causes and determining treatment for sickle cell disease, based on a patient’ s behavioral factors.   Socio-demographic factors determine behavior, and consequently, neurocognitive deficits associated with cerebral infarction and the development of internalizing challenges because of their disease.

In addition, human behavior determines susceptibility to diseases such as malaria, which puts one at risk of sickle cell disease (Jones, 2008). Economic Factors Risk, treatment, and management of sickle cell disease largely rely on the availability of resources to prevent, acquire treatment, and manage the disease. They determine access to healthy foods, transportation to the hospital, and access and affordability of quality medical care.

Lack of insurance, for example, may promote preventive measures, but delay the process of medication, which aggravates the situation. The high cost of treatment is just too high for people from some socio-demographic areas who have other urgent needs such as access to food and shelter. The result is unmet health needs and fatalities from improper management of the disease (Jones, 2008).

References

Bloom, M. (2009). Understanding Sickle Cell Disease. Mississippi: Univ. Press of Mississippi.

Jones, P. (2008). Sickle Cell Disease. New York: Infobase Publishing.

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