"Community Health Nursing" is a remarkable example of a paper on care. Community health nursing refers to the services provided by nursing professionals who work in local communities. Community health nursing is different from community-based, community-focused and community-driven nursing in that they are not located within the community. Community health nurses are in most cases employed by health government and health agencies. Q2 Education to the public on matters relating to health is an example of an issue that need advocacy. Community health nurses propose that the public be educated and awareness created as a way of combating some diseases, like cancer.
Community health nurses petition the authorities to allocate a significant proportion of the budget to this effect. Q3 Community health nursing standards differ significantly from professional standards. Whereas professional standards focus mainly on science art of medication, community health nursing standards entail promotion, prevention and protection aspects of health. It extends to capacity building and ensuring there is equity in health care. Q4 Community health nurse must be competent in some aspects to enhance the effectiveness of the job. They should be good in analytical assessment to help understand their patients.
Cultural competence is essential as a tool enabling the nurses to interact freely with the people. Community health nurses should plan their programs to execute their duties appropriately. They need to work together with other stakeholders in the community health sector. Confidence and independence are important in the life of a community nurse besides understanding their job. Q5 Client-oriented community nursing entails caregiving and counselling of patients, mostly in their residences while delivery-oriented nursing encompasses coordination and collaboration of health services. Client-oriented nursing is done by a nurse in touch with the patient.
Delivery oriented services coordinated by a manager. Population-oriented involves research within the community with the objective of finding a solution. Q6 Population health care occurs at the individual, community and population level. The individual-focused intervention is for people found in a population at risk from a particular epidemic. Changing community norms that go against health promotion requires community-focused practice. Population focused services assist to change every member of the community. Q7 Population health refers to the health condition of a group of people and incorporates the distribution pattern within the population.
A good indicator of whether a population is healthy or not is life expectancy. In a healthy population, people live for many years. Q8 Population health care occurs at the individual, community and population level. The individual-focused intervention is for people found in a population at risk from a particular epidemic. Changing community norms that go against health promotion requires community-focused practice. Population focused services assist to change every member of the community. Q9 Nancy Milio, Mark Salmon White and Florence Nightingale are some of the people who contributed to community health nursing.
Milio designed a plan for the prevention of diseases while White proposed the use of education to combat disease. Q10 A shift from treating diseases to the prevention of diseases is necessary. Prevention is necessary especially for lifestyle diseases including diabetes and obesity. Today, the World Health Organization, a subsidiary of United Nations holds community health conferences every year. Q11 Basing community health nursing on a model help improve the services of a community health nurse. Adopting a model provides a clear framework on how to achieve a specific health objective within a community. Q12 Epidemiology is important in community health as it gives a description of the status of health in a community.
It also explains the causes and predicts diseases occurrence. To some extent, epidemiology regulates the distribution of a disease in case of an outbreak. Q13 Internet use is on the rise and has negative impacts on teenagers. Notable effects are alcohol abuse, obesity and asthma. Use of social media enables teenagers to share information amongst them. Through sharing information, some may learn about alcohol from their peers. Obesity comes in as teenagers spend their free time browsing the internet.
They do not exercise and this leads to accumulation of fats therefore adipose tissue. Spending too much time in closed rooms with poor, ventilation predisposes teenagers to asthma. Due to lack of ventilation, allergens like dust and home chemicals saturate the rooms. Q14 Morbidity is the rate of disease occurrence among a population while mortality is the rate of death in a population. High morbidity rates translate to an unhealthy population. Mortality rate indicates worsening population health. Q15 The four components of the Neuman’ s health system model are the patient, disease, environment and health.
The model proposes primary prevention attainable through client-oriented service for individual and delivery-based service for an aggregate of people. Advocacy may entail education to prevent diseases (Basavanthappa, 2008). Q16 The three elements of the dimensions model include health dimensions, Health care dimensions and nursing dimensions. Health dimension determines how the nurse will assess the patient’ s condition while health care and nursing dimensions provide a guide on what interventions the nurse will take. Q17 The individual-focused level of the model entails consultation, counselling and educating people on public health.
Community-focused level encompasses collaboration and organizing the community. System focused level is about surveillance and social marketing. Q18 The focal elements in the community as a partner model are respect, communication, governance dissemination and assessment. The community must respect and communicate appropriately to the health nurses for them to be able to deliver quality services. Q19 The National Health Service of America is the most popular health system. Community health nurses have a significant role to play in ensuring the NHS remains popular. They have to provide quality services. Q20 Public health agencies are obliged to monitor the status of health in the community, examine health issues, educate the masses on health matters, and initiate partnerships that solve health problems.
Other obligations include policy development and ensure enforcement of laws that govern health and safety. Both official and voluntary health agencies share the common objective of having a healthy community. The contrast is that the responsibility is mandatory for the official agencies while the voluntary only step in when there is a need. The shared objective forms the basis of the relationship between the two. Q21 Community health nurses are in touch with the ongoings within the community.
They propose policies based on their evaluation of the prevailing circumstances in the communities. They also link the community to higher authorities. Q22 The most fundamental criteria for evaluating health policy development include population benefits, cost, ethics or equity, administrative feasibility, and perspectives of various constituencies. Perspectives of various constituencies including sponsors, providers, and employees remain applicable in evaluating policy benefits beyond patients. Administrative feasibility is applicable for instance in evaluating timeframe for implementing the health policy while ethics or equity assists in maintaining utilitarianism.
Cost economics of health policy remains applicable in containing costs within available resources while population benefit assists in the reduction of disparities relating to accessibility and quality care. Q23 Involvement of the U. S. in global health initiatives is imperative as the developing countries benefit from the advanced research conducted by the country. The U. S also benefits by receiving current data on health from such countries. The critical elements of the global policy agenda are research and disease prevention. Q24 National health systems have the sole responsibility of ensuring that healthy populations exist within their borders.
They provide health care, educate the communities and evaluate the health situations. A common challenge in policy faced by health systems relates to community culture that does not coincide with the proposed policy. Q25 Globalization ensures rapid response to a disease outbreak in any part of the world. This ensures fewer casualties fall to the disease. The negative effect of globalization is the spread of diseases from one part of the world to another after the rescue response.
ReferencesBasavanthappa, . (2008). Community health nursing. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Publishers.