"End of Life Care in South Asia" is an outstanding example of a paper on care. The healthcare sector essentially requires nursing care services to effectively deliver and provide the best quality services as it aims at meeting its objectives. Nursing services are unarguably required all over the world in every cleft and cranny of society to assist in medical care. Sometimes, nurses may be needed to practice in regions away from their native cultures; something that can be very challenging and this can only be possible if they have the skills and expertise to handle the diverse cultural dynamics (Bloomer & Al-Mutair, 2013).
This paper is an integrative literature review based on the conducted studies on the beliefs of South Asian culture concerning ‘ End-of-Life’ care as a transcultural nursing concern so as to generate a more comprehensive, well-informed inference. To best understand ‘ end-of-life’ care in South Asia, it is vital that a review of the studies previously conducted be done so as to give more broadened perspectives into the issue. Background Nursing care is a profession that is very sensitive to culture and since the nurses interact with patients and their families on a daily basis, a deep insight into the cultural diversity and dynamics is required to effectively handle and care for the sick and their families and friends.
For over six decades, transcultural nursing has been identified and recognized as a sub-discipline within the nursing profession such that aspiring nurses have to be taken through its training to bring out a holistic nurse who understands how the myriad global cultures affect and are affected by nursing (Bloomer and AL-Mutair, 2013). The need to provide nursing services that are culture-bound is essential in high-quality service and it is for this reason that nursing is entrenched on ethnological knowledge of the groups of people and their responses to healthcare practice based on cultures they subscribe to.
Medical interventions that seek to end the lives of those who are suffering; whose conditions cannot get better have received numerous reactions, both negative and positive. Some few culture groups agree that euthanasia is necessary when the patients are suffering but most cultures generally abhor and greatly condemn such practices.
The legal perspective in this issue also varies from region to regions and a deep understanding into it is therefore necessary. Numerous studies have been done to understand ‘ end-to-life’ issues based on culture care theory which conceptualizes that effective nursing care is only complete if cultural aspects are taken care of and sensitivity to one’ s social background is enhanced in health care practice. Most of these researches have been able to contextually explore the attitude of different cultures in regard to end f life issue and its subsequent effects on healthcare delivery.
Also, some studies have sought to understand the cross-cultural challenges that nurses go through in their quest to deliver nursing services in foreign cultures and given recommendations on how to remedy the situations. Others have focused on the analysis of the nurse’ s view on end to life and how their cultures influence their perceptions on the same outlining the significance of transcultural nursing knowledge in handling these cases. This paper will carefully evaluate the results of the research journal published concerning an end to life in South Asia and provide an integrated discussion on what transcultural nursing involves as revealed by the many studies.
The target groups for this study are the religious/ cultural groups in South Asia who can provide culture-based opinions into the topic. Aim of the Study This exercise aims at integrating relevant literature, both theoretical and practical, so as to explore and determine the beliefs/ attitudes for ‘ end of life’ care of the South Asian patients so that a deeper insight into the issue can be found. This will be done through analysis of various studies that have been conducted in South Asia in regard to the same.
The outcomes and findings from these research works will be counter-linked with the theoretical propositions so as to generate a more lucid and comprehensible inference. Methodology Database Search A bibliographic survey based on various databases such as ‘ Medical Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline)’ , ‘ Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Index (LILACS)’ and ‘ CINAHL’ were used. Descriptors such as ‘ transcultural nursing’ , ‘ beyond culture nursing care’ , ‘ religion and nursing’ ‘ Euthanasia’ , ‘ cross-cultural nursing’ ‘ end to life care’ are some of the keywords that were searched in the databases. Sampling Criteria Using the inclusive criteria as sampling criteria, the found articles were selected based on their degree relevancy to transcultural nursing such that from a volume of over 60 journals, a more reliable seven were picked for evaluation out of the large population extracted from the database.
This criterion was suitable and applicable due to the non-participatory nature of the subjects hence more ‘ researcher-active’ worked best. Data Evaluation The data collected from different sources were evaluated and analyzed using meta-analysis in which different studies’ outcomes were consolidated and primary data findings from seven sources put to scrutiny.
Meta-analysis helped bring together different ideas and discoveries from diverse studies thereby enabling the researcher to the convergence of perspective. Due to the nature of the approach used which is Evidence-Based Practice, Meta-analysis was best applicable in picking out supported propositions from the researches and combining them to reveal the coherent result. Results A study done by Zamer & Volker (2013) outlined the essential ethical significances that culture-sensitive nursing brings. Religious leaders who participated in the study revealed different views on ‘ end-to-life’ issue thereby pointing out the fact that one cannot rigidly use one point of view to apply in all situations.
Samantha’ s (2013) exploration also revealed that the only way to meet people’ s healthcare need holistically is through involving their faiths. A study conducted by Harford & Aljawi (2012) found out that there was a great necessity to tailor palliative care offered to the Muslim community based on religious beliefs and culture. A research carried out by Borhani, Hosseini & Abbaszadeh (2013) with an aim to get the nurses to view concerning ‘ end-to-life’ within the Muslim community, also reported that the level and determination to provide care to the patients influences the participants’ outlook on this issue.
Ebrahim, Bance & Bowman also evaluated the Sirk’ s view concerning ‘ end-to-life’ and the results demonstrated a totally different view from other cultures. Literatures found from Bloomer & Al-Mutair, (2013) described the Islamic culture different from other cultures on its view of end-to-life’ due to its teachings which are different from the Christian. Discussion The results generally show that the perception that various cultures and groups of people have towards medical issues such as ‘ end-to-life’ differ due to the group’ s teachings and beliefs.
Islamic culture teaches differently compared to Hindu and Christianity. It is highly condemned to carry out euthanasia in most of the cultures that were interviewed and this means that nurses and healthcare providers have to be careful with the recommendations that they give to families of the patients. Most of the literature revealed that culture also affects even the nurses such that they cannot perform certain operations due to the abhorrence it receives from their cultures. Conclusion The results from the studies indicate and imply that without proper analysis of the culture group one is handling, a lot of errors may be made in the process that cannot only terminate the nursing process but also be a major ethical concern.
Cultural sensitivity is a prerequisite in cross-cultural nursing and every single individual has to be armed with sufficient knowledge and insight of the diverse cultures across the world and orient themselves to the basics of the traditions and beliefs so that these conflicts can be avoided.
End to life has been regarded as a serious ethical violation by those carrying it out especially in Asian regions and medical workers in those areas have to understand that cultural perspective in order to operate well.
Bloomer, M., & Al-Mutair, A. (2013). Ensuring cultural sensitivity for Muslim patients in the Australian ICU: Considerations for care. Australian Critical Care, 26(4), 193-196. doi:10.1016/j.aucc.2013.04.003
Borhani, F., Hosseini, S., & Abbaszadeh, A. (2013). Commitment to care: a qualitative study of intensive care nurses' perspectives of end-of-life care in an Islamic context. International Nursing Review, 61(1), 140-147. doi:10.1111/inr.12079
Ebrahim, S., Bance, S., &Bowman, KW. (2011). Sikh perspectives towards death and end-of-life care, 27 (2), 170-174.
Harford, J., & Aljawi, D. (2012). The need for more and better palliative care for Muslim patients. Pall Supp Care, 11(01), 1-4. doi: 10.1017/s1478951512000053
Saccomano, S., & Abbatiello, G. (2014). Cultural considerations at the end of life. The Nurse Practitioner, 39(2), 24-31. doi:10.1097/01.npr.0000441908.16901.2e
Samantha, J. (2013). Equality for followers of South Asian religions in end-of-life care. Nursing Ethics, 20(4), 382-391. doi: 10.1177/0969733012455567
Zamer, J., & Volker, D. (2013). Religious Leaders’ Perspectives of Ethical Concerns at the End of Life. Journal Of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 15(7), 396-402. doi:10.1097/njh.0b013e31829cffa4