Levels of Evidence in Nursing – Care Example

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"Levels of Evidence in Nursing" is a delightful example of a paper on care. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2012Type of Study:   Descriptive study about how health disorders come into play in psychiatric patients.   Research question or hypothesis:   Does the psychological aspect trigger increase in the weight of the psychiatrist's’ inpatients? Study methodology:   A survey of how eating disorders usually occur with severe medical or psychiatric comorbidity and how exercises can be employed in handling the issue. Level of study:   Analytical studySample Composition and Size:   The study encompassed the adolescents and the young adultsMajor Findings:   The research found that 4% of the participants who are in adolescence and young adults have eating disorders.

5% of the mid-teens patients have also eating disorders. According to the research, psychiatric comorbidity or severe medical plays a role in impacting health disorders. Although in the psychiatric facilities the practitioners try to control the inpatients’ diet, they end up practicing eating disorders which eventually lead to an increase in weight. The research has indicated that one of the practical measures in solving the problem of an increase in weight is involving the inpatients in physical exercise.

It is hence evident that physical exercise will greatly help in solving the increase in weight of the psychiatric patients when they are in the health facility (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Jeannette Y. Wick, Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2015Type of Study:   A study of why adolescent inpatients gain weight when they are in mental facilities and how physical exercise help in regulating the weight of these patients  Research question or hypothesis:   How the inpatients who had gained much weight were helped in controlling their weight? Study methodology:   A prospective survey of Israeli day-clinic patients who were hospitalized more than 30 days but fewer than 365 days  Level of study:   A thorough analytical study.   Sample Composition and Size:   The study comprised 120 patients in the Israeli day-clinic who were hospitalized more than 30 days but fewer than 365 days  Major Findings:   The study comprised 120 patients in the Israeli day-clinic who were hospitalized for more than 30 days but fewer than 365 days.

The study indicated that patients’ BMI increased by an approximate mean of 0.5 in the hospitalization period. However, according to the research, only 26 of the 120 patients recorded a weight gain.

Males, however, were 3.5 times more likely to gain weight. The research indicates that the patients who had gained much weight were subjected to six days of training a week that was taking 7 hours daily. The training encompassed various educational and clinical activities. They also underwent approximately 4 hours of physical activities every week (Wick, 2015). These exercises played pivotal roles in controlling weight gain if not facilitating weight loss. Lindsay & Mills, International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 2013Type of Study:   A survey of the importance of the physical activity to the client or in patients with bipolar disorderResearch question or hypothesis:   Since patients with bipolar disorders are at higher risk of morbidity than ordinary people, is physical activity the best type of treatment? Study methodology:   The research employed an interview.   Level of study:   A case study of a bipolar disorder patient alongside an independent outside researchSample Composition and Size:   The research analyzes the case of an individual suffering from bipolar disorder.

However, the research also bought information from an independent surveyMajor Findings:   According to the research, a possible though rarely discussed management of bipolar disorder is physical activity.   The research has found that people living with Bipolar Disorders lead to more sedentary lifestyles.

About  71% of people living with Bipolar Disorders were found to be walking less than three times every week as opposed to 60% of the people in the general population. The research also indicates that there exist questions of whether physical activities contribute to the development of the bipolar disorder.   According to the research, lack of physical activity is linked to the existence of various mental disorders like depression and somatoform which can lead someone is a psychiatric facility.

In other words, if physical exercise can help in preventing mental disorders, similarly it can help in keeping the psychiatric inpatients well. A survey that was conducted by Hale on the self-management strategies among the patients living with bipolar disorder which incorporate 33 participants revealed that physical activity was the secret that helped these patients to stay well (Lindsay & Mills, 2013) This is a clear indication that the inpatient in the psychiatric facilities needs to be subjected to physical training and exercise for effective management of their condition. Amresh and Megan,   US National Library of Medicine  National Institutes of Health, 2007Type of Study:   A survey of Weight-Gain during the Psychiatric Treatment in terms of the Risks, Implications, as well as Strategies for Prevention and ManagementResearch question or hypothesis:   How can obesity and overweight be managed in a psychiatric facility? Study methodology:   Analysis of the impact of exercises on obese inpatients in a psychiatric facility  Level of study:   Analytical studySample Composition and Size:   The study analyzed patients in early adulthood or adolescence when in a psychiatric facilityMajor Findings:   An increase in weight among the inpatients of the psychiatric facility is a real challenge due to the medication they are subjected to.

The article indicates that the encouragement of exercise and activity helps in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and also help in counteracting the psychiatric medications' side effects. Non-Pharmacologic interventions are the best strategies in dealing with the whole issue which can also be defined as physical fitness programs (Amresh & Megan,   2010). Yeon, Bong, Ji, and Seung Type of Study:   A study of how Aerobic exercise helps in improving gastrointestinal motility in the psychiatric inpatientsResearch question or hypothesis:   What is the impact of aerobic exercise on psychiatric inpatients? Study methodology:   A survey of individual adult inpatients in the Somang Hospital the Psychiatry UnitLevel of study:   a comparative and analytical studySample Composition and Size:   The study encompassed Sixty consecutive adult inpatients in a psychiatric facilityMajor Findings:   The study was compared between normal exercise and aerobic exercise with intentions of understanding the benefits the inpatients can gain through incorporating the aerobic exercises.

The study indicates that among the 60 participants, 30 of the participants were involved in a 12 weeks aerobic exercise program while 30 of them were subjected to normal exercise.

The main intention was to understand the most effective tool in controlling weight gain which is a real issue to the inpatients in a psychiatric facility. The research found that there were a number of dropouts the participants who persevered received significant benefits in their fitness. On the format of (mean ± SE), the aerobic participants recorded a weight drop of 69.4 ± 2.8 as opposed to 67.6 ± 2.7 of their counterparts. The BMI that was recorded was 25.2 ± 1.1 vs24.9 ± 0.8.

It is hence clear that both strategies were beneficial to the inpatients although the aerobic was revealed to be more effective. Physical exercises are therefore a vital aspect when it comes to the fitness of inpatients when they are in psychiatric facilities (Kim et al. , 2014). Camilla Haw and Arleen Rowell, The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 2011Type of Study:   A survey of inpatients in a psychiatric facility who turned out to be obese and overweightResearch question or hypothesis:   What is the solution to Obesity that tends to feature among the psychiatric inpatients and later contribute to premature mortality as well as morbidity? Study methodology:   A cross‐sectional survey of male and female forensic as well as rehabilitation patients using routinely collected data. Level of study:   Cross-sectional study routinely basedSample Composition and Size:   The survey encompassed 234 adult male and female patients in a psychiatric hospital 144 were males and 90 were femalesMajor Findings:   The research found that out of 144 males 33.3 percent were overweight while 47.2 percent were obese.

Out of the 90 females, 20.0 percent of them were overweight while 63.3 percent were obese.

The research also found that the inpatients gained this weight in their previous three months. Being obese or overweight was a result of the prescriptions of the valproate and antipsychotic medication. According, to the research physical exercises, are one of the pivotal strategies that the practitioners can employ as a remedy for this situation (Haw & Rowell, 2011).

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2000). Eating disorders measures. American Psychiatric Association: Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association 2, 647-673.

Amresh, S. & Megan, E. (2010). Weight-Gain in Psychiatric Treatment: Risks, Implications, and Strategies for Prevention and Management. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health 8(1), 53–68

Haw, C. & Rowell, A. (2011). Obesity and its complications: a survey of inpatients at a secure psychiatric hospital. The British Journal of Forensic Practice 13 (4), 270 – 277

Kim, Y., Song, B.K., Oh, J. S. & Woo S.S. (2014). Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health 20(30), 10577–10584.

Lindsay, A. C. & Mills, M. J. (2013). Physical Activity, Bipolar Disorder, and Me. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 18(1), 125-132

Wick, J.Y. (2015). Adolescent Inpatients Gain Weight in Mental Health Facilities. Copyright MD Magazine 4(1).

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