Developing Understanding of Pediatrics HIV – Child Development Example

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"Developing Understanding of Pediatrics HIV" is an incredible example of a paper on child development.   Nkuchia M. M'ikanatha defined pediatric HIV as a disease that affects younger individuals differ in terms of the causes associated with the disease (M'ikanatha, 2007, p. 204). In medical terms, HIV is an abbreviation of the human immunodeficiency virus which was initially identified through specimen observation in the year 1981. The definition of pediatric HIV has been noted differently in the varied case. But one commonality among the definition of pediatric HIV is that it is diagnosed among children under the age of 13.

Pediatric HIV’ s symptoms and causes are different than those of adults. According to Cooper, Risley, Drake, and Bundy (2007), Pediatric HIV patient could be defined as a case in which the patient less than the age of 18 months of age who has been diagnosed with the HIV infection symptoms   (Cooper, Risley, Drake, & Bundy, 2007). In other words, it can also be said that a child who has been born to a mother already suffering through HIV/AIDS. Another case also denotes that pediatric HIV is an infection that could be spread by the use of an infected blood sample (Cooper, Risley, Drake, & Bundy, 2007). Age of onset The age of onset associated with the diseases of pediatric HIV among children starts from a very tender age which is the first six months of the birth.

The age onset might lead to slower reactions and resulting in the long run until the age child becomes three years old (Hargreaves, et al. , 2008). Prevalence: The prevalence figures of pediatric HIV were 10% to 60% in previous studies as noted by the sample of mothers who were HIV infected and gave birth to HIV positive babies.

However as per the analysis of the recent studies learning pediatric HIV has been transmitting with a rate of 22% to 36%.     Pediatric HIV has been observed to be increasing in terms of its impact on children. According to the statistics published by United Nations AIDS, globally there are 2.3 million children who are below the age of sixteen and suffering from pediatric HIV. The majority of children with pediatric HIV are from Sub-Saharan Africa.

Also, it was observed that the infection was transformed through mother-to-child among 70, 0000 children. The prevalence of pediatric HIV has come to such high measures that it has become quite evident that the mortality ratio is common among children below the age of five. Among HIV patients, children affected with pediatric HIV are more likely to get affected more than adults. The mortality rate is relatively higher among children than that of adults (Hargreaves, et al. , 2008). History: Most commonly the traces of HIV are interrelated with the transmission and spread of pediatric HIV.

Initially, it was noted and stated that the spread of HIV was transmitted in African countries because of the African monkey infection. The evolution of pediatric HIV is notably Africa where the origin of the immunodeficiency infection is marked (Jukes, 2008). The spread was not researched until the case was reported to the doctors. The diagnosis and treatment of HIV have been recommended in the United States in the year 1995 as a compulsory requirement for everyone. It was to make sure that the infection is not transmitted to the further generations.

But the implication was made limited in some of the states (Cooper, Risley, Drake, & Bundy, 2007). Previously, the transmission of pediatric HIV among children was due to the transfusion of blood products. However, now there are a reduced number of such incidents taking place as technological advancement in screening test has made it possible that it does not happen anymore.   HIV infection among adults was proven to be acting in case they had unprotected intercourse, homosexual intercourse, and excessive use of medicines.

Throughout the historical procedure of conducting history notified that HIV affects children much faster than adults. In other words, it could be said that pediatrics HIV is more dangerous in comparison with HIV AIDS among adults (Greydanus, Dilip, & Patel, 2010).         Subtypes: The subtypes of pediatric HIV include categories named as follows: Class P-0- is considered as an intermediate category of pediatric HIV. This could be tested among children who are clinically observed at the tender age of 15 months. This class indicates children who are born to infected mothers.

In these cases, the antibody is not classified depending upon the extent of the illness effects (Hargreaves, et al. , 2008). Class P-1 the equality of condition in class P-0 and P-1 is present but patients with P-1 diagnosed class are considered to have normal immune system functions (Crain, 2011). Class P-2 is the most critical stage of pediatric HIV in which a child is unable to gain weight and is constantly under the illness of fever. As discussed in the symptoms section, yeast infection is more likely to take place among children with P-2HIV.

Another indication of an infected child in P-2 class is the improper development of the brain. In other words, it could be said that a child being classified in the P-2 class would be weak in terms of intellect (Crain, 2011). Primary Symptoms It has been noted that children who get affected by pediatric HIV are more likely to stop gaining weight. This can also be noted in case the child is not able to develop biologically as their peers. This can give a clear indication to the parents that the child is being affected by the infection (Cooper, Risley, Drake, & Bundy, 2007). Children with pediatric HIV will also find it complicated to develop their motor skills and do major emotional tasks such as crawling, speaking, etc.

This is due to the fact that they are relatively slow and not able to get the pace of biological development. Another indication of pediatric HIV is the often incident of yeast infection that can cause rashes and infections in the mouth which ultimately makes it complicated for the child to eat food properly (Hargreaves, et al. , 2008). Secondary Symptoms: Children with pediatric HIV are more likely to develop OIs which is an abbreviation of opportunistic infections.

One of the OIs is toxoplasmosis which is more common among adults. The most common types of infections that are more likely to affect children are bacterial infections. It is a common indication of pediatric HIV among children. Children with pediatric infection also suffer from fever, pneumonia, etc. They have more visits to hospitals compared with those of their peers (Jukes, 2008). Therapeutic approaches and medical management Currently, there is a lack of pediatric HIV therapeutic approaches available in most of the regions.

This is because of the lack of resources in the medical centers.   The most commonly used treatment for pediatric HIV is an antiretroviral treatment that has been specially designed for children suffering from the infection through mother-to-patient (MTP) (Crain, 2011). Before getting the antiretroviral treatment, it is necessary that the CD4 test has been conducted. This will give surety that whether the child should take the treatment or not. If the measure of CD4 count is decreasing then it actually indicates that the child is having a severe level of pediatric HIV.

The lesser CD4 makes the child have a weak immune system. The continuity of this treatment has been recommended as soon as a patient is diagnosed with the symptoms of pediatric HIV (Hargreaves, et al. , 2008). IX. Prognosis: Anemia is considered as a clinical prognosis of HIV infected patients. In the long run, children will develop the critical aspects of the predictive infected anemia as a prognosis of pediatric HIV. The prognosis of pediatric HIV is relatively rapid which 30% in measure approximately.

The rapid prognosis of pediatric HIV is associated in utero spread. However, the increase in the prognosis is noted to become slower in the age onset of 3 years (Cooper, Risley, Drake, & Bundy, 2007).


Cooper, S., Risley, L., Drake, L., & Bundy, P. (2007). HIV as part of the life of children and youth, as life expectancy increases - implications for education. Journal of International Cooperation in Education , 101 - 113.

Crain, E. (2011). Clinical Manual of Emergency Pediatrics. London: Cambridge University Press.

Greydanus, D., Dilip, R., & Patel, V. (2010). Handbook of Clinical Pediatrics: An Update for the Ambulatory Pediatrician. New Delhi: World Scientific.

Hargreaves, R., Bonell, P., Boler, T., Boccia, T., Birdthistle, I., Fletcher, A., et al. (2008). Systematic review exploring time trends in the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS (22), 403–414.

Jukes, M. S. (2008). Educational access and HIV prevention: Making the case for education as a health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS .

M'ikanatha, N. (2007\\). Infectious disease surveillance. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

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