"Nausea and Vomiting: Pediatric Case" is an exceptional example of a paper on child development. Our patient is a four-year-old child with nausea and vomiting. Nausea is the urge to vomit, coming from the stomach while vomiting is the state when the stomach contents are forced out through the throat and out of the mouth, and sometimes the nose. The following questions can be asked regarding the history of the present illness. Since the patient is an infant, the parents can assist in answering them. When did the patient start experiencing nausea and vomiting? How many times does the child vomit in a day/hour? A brief history of the patient’ s eating habits. When the feeling at its worst? Is there anything you feel that makes it better or worse? Has the patient eaten since the condition started? What is the frequency of the vomiting? Does the child vomit only after eating? The history of present illness should determine when nausea and vomiting episodes started, their intervals, and the nature of the vomitus.
Any pattern of vomiting should be covered by these questions. After obtaining the answers regarding the history of the current condition, it is important to establish the patient’ s medical history.
The following questions will be asked to this effect; - What other symptoms is the child having e. g. diarrhea? When did the patient last urinate? To establish whether the child is dehydrated. Is there blood in the vomit content? Are you on any kind of medication? When did you last eat? What did you eat? Is there anyone who ate the same food having the same symptoms? How severe are nausea and vomiting? Process of conducting an examination The patient should be examined for a number of conditions. To establish whether it’ s a viral attack such as in gastroenteritis, other symptoms that should be evident include diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain.
Other examinations that should be conducted should establish whether the patient is having gastroesophageal reflux. The abdominal examination should be done to check for distention, palpation should be done to check tenderness. The examination should establish whether there is a pathologic condition attached to the symptoms. These may include a gastrointestinal disorder, neurologic, and/or renal problem e. g. in nephrolithiasis. Pneumonia and rumination can also have similar symptoms. According to Kelly and Ward (2013), about 17-49% of patients having heart disease will experience nausea and vomiting (p.
16). Rebecca and Grunberg (2009); Mazlum, Chaharsoughi, Banihashem, and Vashani, (2013), attributes chemotherapy to nausea and vomiting and so medical history can be important in establishing the cause of the symptoms (p. 54). The tests for these conditions should be conducted before proposing a management plan. Differential Diagnoses Differential diagnoses are aimed at distinguishing conditions which have closely similar symptoms in the development of a management plan. The best way to achieve the best results is through the conduction of examinations and tests that can rule in or out various conditions.
For instance, this could be a case of food poisoning, gastroenteritis, or gastroesophageal influx. Therefore, in our case, the best course of action that can be used to define the management is through the evaluation of the medical history of the child. When assessing medical history, it’ s good to take into consideration any clinical features of specific disorders.
Kelly, B. & Kate, W. (2013). Nausea and Vomiting in Palliative Care. Nursing Times, (109)39, p. 16-19. Retrieved from.
Mazlum, S., Chaharsoughi, T. N., Banihashem, A. & Vashani, B. H. (2013). The Effect of Massage Therapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Cancer. Iran Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, (18)4, p. 280-284. Retrieved from.
Rebecca, H. & Grunberg, S. (2009). Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Challenges and Opportunities. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, (13)1, p. 54-64. Available at.