Foot Care for People with Diabetes – Diabetes Mellitus Example

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"Foot Care for People with Diabetes" is a wonderful example of a paper on diabetes mellitus.   Client Initials: MH. Age: Sixty years.   Gender: Female.   Health Literacy: Low Level of Health LiteracyCulture Identified: Influences: American IndianMany American Indians embrace a diet that puts them at risk of contracting diabetes disease. Religious Affiliation: BuddhistHighest Education Level Achieved: CollegeOccupation: Business Operator Description of Health Need Requiring Teaching: The client needs sound knowledge on the management of foot complications that result from diabetes disease. Foot amputations have increased among patients with diabetes disease. In this regard, it is crucial to give practical strategies to manage feet in a diabetic patient. Health Beliefs The American Indians are extremely hesitant to agree and follow health recommendations from physicians.

The population holds the belief that acceptance of the diagnosis of severe illness limits the chances of members of society from getting married. The population does not discuss severe health matters openly. The failure to deliberate on what they should do to manage illness leads to serious medical complications. Economic Issues American Indians face some economic issues. Statistics indicate that poverty persists in the Native American communities. The American Indians have fewer opportunities of securing formal employment. Lifespan Development Considerations The American Indian generation has faced financial constraints during their development.

This has forced them to live lifestyles full of abject poverty. Compounded with health beliefs, it has been extremely difficult to get the right diet and information pertinent to the alleviation of non-communicable diseases. Support System The support system is conspicuously lacking. The health beliefs of the American Indians have jeopardized efforts to support and save them from debilitating diabetes condition. Identified/Preferred Learning Style American Indians prefer a lifestyle that risks them from contracting diabetes.

For instance, the population likes smoking, which is a risk factor that exposes an individual to diabetes. Physical Needs that affect Learning Excruciating pain and impaired sensitivity severely affect the learning experience of the client. Often, the diabetic client complains of deep and superficial pain that have an adverse effect on their concentration. In addition, the patients face troubles in movement and writing. Failure to put down notes properly for future reference jeopardizes the learning outcomes. Psychosocial Needs that affect Learning Diabetes among the Indian American population is affected by psychological and social problems.

For instance, diabetic patients experience high levels of depression, eating disorders, and anxiety. In addition, the patient cannot interact freely with the instructor. This remarkably affects the concentration of diabetic patients in the teaching and learning process. Cognitive Needs that affect Learning                      Diabetes patients experience a reduction in psychomotor efficiency and motor speed. The neurocognitive changes are attributable to the reduction of white matter microstructure. The patients experience memory loss and difficulties in language processing. Readiness to Learn: The clients are not ready to learn under heavy pains. Clients with psychological and social problems do not concentrate on their studies.

The weak memory of diabetic patients has a negative effect on the learning process. Teaching Plan Nursing Diagnosis: Caring for the foot for people with diabetes intends to eliminate diabetic patients on the best way to take care of their feet. The topic focuses on the American Indian diabetic population that has recorded high rates of foot amputations.   Outcome Statement The learner is expected to know sound methods to care for their feet as one way of managing diabetic conditions. In essence, the learner should be competent to practice methods such as preventing foot injuries, selecting shoes that fit the learner well, and visiting a podiatrist yearly for foot examination.   Educational Outcomes (prioritized) Content Teaching Activity Include Resources/Aids Client/Caregiver Activity for Evaluation Diabetes patients should report ingrown toenails to doctors.   The lessons will utilize several kinds of literature that have analyzed the best practices of caring for the foot of diabetes patients. The instructor will evaluate the learner through rehearsing on the solid practices for caring feet for diabetic patients. Patients should monitor blisters and cuts that take a long time to cure.   The lesson will explore the prevalence of diabetes among different American Indians and cultural practices that prevent proper care of the diabetes feet. The learner will be expected to simulate a real scenario of a nurse advising a client on the best measures to care for the feet of diabetes patients. Patients should practice precautionary measures such as selecting socks and shores that fit them comfortably.   The lesson will use teaching resources such as books and journals that cover the subject of discussion.

In addition, the lesson will incorporate taped videos that reflect on the best practice of foot care in diabetes populations.   Patients should wear shores all the time to avoid possible injuries that may result in amputations. The instructor will evaluate the outcomes of the lessons through a continuous assessment test.

The client is expected to show comprehension of the material covered throughout the lesson.   Literature Review Statistics indicate that American Indians record a high number of amputations from diabetes disease (Heitzman et al, 2010). A research carried out in 2000 revealed that amputations of the foot in American Indian populations were higher than the non-Hispanic white by 3.5 times.

Women among this population report higher incidences of lower extreme amputations than men do. In addition, the risks of foot amputations increase with the age. Thus, the aged population is at a high risk of undergoing amputations. The amputated client has trouble with movement. Heitzman et al (2010) assert that fifty percent of my diabetes clients manifest impaired sensation. In addition, the client complains of paresthesias in deep or superficial shooting pain. Severe deep pain leads to wasting of the muscles of the foot. Therefore, management of feet is a remarkable measure to prevent the adverse effects of diabetes.

Some of the practices for caring for the feet of diabetes patients include a proper section of shore, reporting persistent cuts and bristles, and preventing possible injury (National Eye Institute, 2009).


Heitzman, J., et al (2010). Foot Care for Patients With Diabetes. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 26 (3), 250-263. Retrieved 25 Nov 2012, from

National Eye Institute (2009). Effective Education to Target Groups. Retrieved from

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