Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Treatment Policy – Diabetes Mellitus Example

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"Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Treatment Policy" is a marvelous example of a paper on diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is one of the contemporary chronic diseases, which is progressively engulfing the world’ s health sector. Kohei Kaku’ s article on the  pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its treatment policy gives an in-depth study of a population in Japan (Kaku, 2010). According to the article, Diabetes is a metabolic disorder motivated by the inactivity of insulin. Evidently, many people suffer from different diseases due to a lack of information. As a result, high-quality information is inevitable for self-care, medicine management, and promotion of health (Li, 2006).

Type 2 diabetes-like any other disease requires pertinent attention and care with different participative models. However, Kaku focuses on different perspectives of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes ranging from etiology, insulin resistance, and treatment policy. Based on etiological studies, type 2 diabetes arises from genetic factors connected to insulin resistance and environmental conditions. Evidently, environmental factors include overeating, obesity, limited exercise, and aging. Arguably, it is a multifactorial complication involving many genes influenced by a series of environmental factors.

According to the article, Japanese people show low insulin secretion capacity because of sugar loading by the small pancreases. As compared to other western people, the Japanese may manifest many sensitive genes as evidenced by the rapidly increasing changes in lifestyle. Notably, studies on type 2 diabetes have clearly manifested many relationships with the family. Certainly, this has attracted the attention of different researchers and medical fraternities on the clear causes and initiators of the disease. Asian ethnic groups such as the Japanese have a disease susceptibility gene responsible for different actions. Nevertheless, the article proves that 30% of all genetic abnormalities remain responsible for factors motivating diabetes (Kaku, 2010).

Genetic abnormalities, responsible for type 2 diabetes get classified in terms of specific mechanisms. However, apart from genetically motivated diabetes, an array of environmental factors also contributes to the disease. For example, changes in dietary content especially fat intake remain responsible for different diabetic conditions. As a matter of fact, even mild obesity with less than a BMI of 25 induces a 4- to 5- fold or exposure to the disease.

The Japanese, for instance, are prone to visceral fat retention because of hyperalimentation. Arguably, the Pathophysiology of insulin plays a very important role in not only research but also the successful delivery of proficient solutions. Impaired insulin secretion and resistance influences Pathophysiological conditions from different perspectives. According to the article, impaired secretion entails a decrease in glucose reaction noted in the clinical onset of the disease. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is an ordinary complication that motivates diabetes from different perspectives. For example, it reduces glucose responsiveness at a near phase of diagnosis that might lead to postprandial hyperglycemia (Li, 2006).

Based on oral glucose tests, western and Hispanic individuals have a high insulin resistance indicated by over response. Concurrently, Japanese patients decrease insulin secretion under the same tests. In as much as the decrease in the secretion is an essential part of the tests, change in given groups raises many questions. Conceivably, this is because insulin secretion is progressive and in many instances may lead to glucose toxicity (Kaku, 2010). In the field of Pathophysiology, untreated insulin secretion affects long-term control.

Therefore, it is important to formulate good initiatives responsible for diagnosing the disease at the early stages. On the same note, the permanent elevation of blood sugar relies on decreased Pathophysiological progression at the early phases of secretion (Gibson & Froguel, 2004). Contrary to insulin secretion, resistance is a condition of diabetes type 2 where the insulin generated does not arouse sufficient action commensurate to blood concentration. Evidently, this complication affects target organs such as muscles and the liver a common feature of diabetes type 2. The molecular mechanism classifies insulin resistance with regards to insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, which affects genes from different perspectives.   Uncoupling proteins in this respect affects insulin impairment that might also trigger an increase in resistance.

In this light, insulin resistance remains a great determinant of diabetes type 2 (Kaku, 2010). Notably, clinical tests to examine the level of insulin resistance constitute different models. These include the Homeostasis model (HOMA-IR), steady-state plasma glucose, loading test, and the Matsuda index. Diabetes treatment focuses on the ability to secure quality life and prolong the lifespan. According to Kuko, prevention of vascular progression does not only limit diabetes but also prevents other macro-vascular complications.

Certainly, marginal glucose levels may suggest the need for early interventions; however, control of complications relies on different facts. For example, the use of anti-diabetic drugs and lifestyle improvement medications can significantly help in treating diabetes type 2. Drugs such as metformin and thiazolidine not only treat the complication at an early phase but also encourage suppression of resistance or secretion. From this perspective, the treatment of diabetes type 2 relies on the patient’ s ability to seek effective treatment initiatives under tests (Kaku, 2010).

Without an adequate test, a patient is likely to attract resistance that might further induce non-treatment. Additionally, it is vital to undertake a comprehensive intervention that includes lipid management and blood pressure analysis that ensures vascular complications do not arise. On the same note, pioglitazone suppression for cardiovascular disorders can also be used to improve prognosis. Most importantly, early intervention techniques are necessary to ensure the suppression of Pathophysiological conditions. Certainly, this helps in controlling glucose toxicity, which is an essential pre-requisite in the long-term treatment of diabetes. In conclusion, Kaku’ s article on the Pathophysiology of diabetes type 2 brings into light various factors.

Apparently, the soaring number of diabetes patients demands broader attention from specialist and non-specialists. Convenient treatment relies on early intervention of the disease that is tantamount to collaboration between different stakeholders. The article furthermore attempts to create an understanding between genetics and diabetes that has remained an inherent problem for a long. According to the article, many families have experienced a consistent occurrence of diabetes along family lines.

These have raised many questions, especially among the Japanese population. Based on Kaku’ s assessment, genetics is responsible for diabetes type 2 from different perspectives. In essence, the article provides an evidence-based analysis putting into perspective Pathophysiology as an important element in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.


Gibson, F., & Froguel, P. (2004). Genetics of the APM1 Locus and Its Contribution to Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility in French Caucasians. Diabetes, 2977-2983.

Kaku, K (2010). Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Treatment Policy, JMAJ 53(1): 41–46, 2010

Li, H. (2006). Higher Rate of Obesity and Hypertension in Adolescents With Type 2 Diabetes Than in Those With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2326-2326

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