The Importance of Physical Exercise Among Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes – Diabetes Mellitus Example

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"The Importance of Physical Exercise Among Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes" is a perfect example of a paper on diabetes mellitus. This research study has focused on physical activity, which is a major public health concern all over the world. The researchers focused specifically on the effectiveness of web-based programs to increase the level of physical exercise among adult patients with type 2 diabetes. The researchers in this study have identified the health conditions that develop because of the lack or reduced level of physical activities. Lack of physical exercise has caused an increase in the cases of chronic diseases.

These health conditions include cardiovascular diseases, various forms of cancer, and type 2 diabetes. The research study has identified the effectiveness that web-based delivery has over the traditional face-to-face intervention. Some disadvantages of face-to-face intervention mentioned include, geographical limitation, being intensive on resources and very expensive. As an alternative of face-to-face intervention, web-based delivery is less costly on resources and can be accessed from any part of the world hence clients cannot be limited by their geographical location. The research problem was relevant to this research study.

The researchers as well gave out the usefulness of managing chronic diseases using the stated web-based intervention. The randomized trial method that was applied to select the subjects of this study was based for such a study because it minimizes chances of bias encountered in choosing study subjects in various research studies. The subjects were followed up for a period of 12 weeks by the researchers to establish how effective web-based intervention is in the management of type 2 diabetes. Literature review The main purpose of carrying out this study was to research-based evidence concerning the efficiency of web-based intervention in the control of chronic diseases, specifically type 2diabetes.

The researchers compared the advantages and disadvantages of the usual face-to-face intervention and web-based intervention as an alternative approach. The efficiency of the web-based approach over face-to-face method has been stated in this paper. This study has shown how this intervention method can be accessed on the website any time the client feels like doing so. This research study also focused on time spent on physical activities, and the frequency of engaging in general body exercises.

Through this, the researchers as well stated the general outcomes of physical activity in relation to controlling chronic diseases. The intervention website utilizes a self-management technique that was developed basing on the theory of planned behaviour. The study focused on behaviour change for study subjects in order to take the action of involving themselves in physical activities. The self-management approach was meant to promote the development of skills and abilities to start and uphold beneficial health-related behaviours.   The study also compared the rate of website usage between the study subjects and the control category.

It was exposed that the intervention category recorded a high rate of website logins as compared to the control group. In the end, the research study reported how the number of website logins of the intervention group increased with time. Theoretical framework: The study is centred on the reality that type 2 diabetes develops because of lack or else reduced involvement in physical activities. The researchers have made it known that management of type 2 diabetes and other chronic health conditions involves engaging in physical exercises.

In this study, the researchers reviewed one theory called the Theory of Planned Behavior. The self-management approach utilized in this study was based on this theory. It aims at encouraging individuals to start and maintain positive health-related behaviours, which are useful to prevent and control chronic diseases. The specific positive health-related activity in this study was promoting physical activities through the website as a technique of prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The researchers stated that past research studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour in explaining physical activity behaviour as well as using this theory as a framework to come up with physical activity interventions.

The theory of planned behaviour change has proved to be effective in the previous studies among populations suffering from chronic diseases to change their health behaviours for instance physical activities. The researchers have clearly explained how useful this theory is in relation to the subject of this research study.   The behaviour changes that this theory suggests are relevant for control and managing type 2 diabetes.

The research findings are in line with what the theory suggests. This is a clear indication that the theory was very useful to come up with the final findings. Method The design of the study that was used in this study involved a group in which the intervention was applied and another group that acted as a control group. The intervention group was made up of 195 subjects while the control group had 202 subjects. This study design has an advantage because the observations from the two groups are compared to come up with valid conclusions.

The study subjects were selected at random among adult patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. This design of study stands a low chance of being challenged through other studies on the same topic. A single intervention was used in this study as an intervention to control type 2 diabetes. This intervention was the utilization of physical activities. Demographic characteristics used in this study include age, ethnicity, height, body weight, marital status, the status of employment, duration since the discovery of the disease, and level of education. The subjects’ height and body weight were utilized to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Descriptive statistics of demographic features and baseline facts for physical exercise were calculated and weighed against each other to discover variations between study groups at baseline and to perform dropout analysis by means of a sequence of independent sample t-tests and chi-square analysis. The subjects via the website gave demographic data.

It is hard to believe that all information that was given by the subjects was true and correct. The researchers did not give away that was used to prove whether the data was true and correct.

The researchers did not specify how other factors for example diet of the subjects affects the results. Improvement in management and control of type 2 diabetes can as well come through the consumption of healthy diets. Changes in such factors apart from physical activities could have affected the results of the study. Physical activity in this study was measured through self-reports approach which can be affected by over porting. The employment of pedometers, high attrition intensity, and lack of a way to measure the reduced level of web usage were also other major limitations of this study. Sampling: The random sampling technique utilized in this study was suitable for such a study.

The subjects were selected at random among adult patients with type 2 diabetes. All samples were relevant because all of them suffered from a similar chronic disease and measuring how the condition was managed through physical activities was easy. The number of samples used was suitable to give valid results that can be used to represent a large population.   Measures Demographic facts and physical exercise performance were acquired for the intervention and control subjects at baseline, 12 and 36 weeks.

For the intervention category, an extra questionnaire evaluating programmed satisfaction was incorporated instantly post-intervention (12 weeks). Ethical issues: The researchers observed ethical issues in selecting the study samples. The subjects were used in the study at their own will because they applied to be used as subjects via the email. Results: The results indicated that an increased level of physical activity is useful in management and control of type 2 diabetes. The methods that were used to analyze the results were also good to give valuable results.

References

Jennings, C., Vandelanotte, C., Caperchione, C., & Mummery, W. (2014). Effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention for adults with Type 2 diabetes-A randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 60, 33-40. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.12.011
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