Blood Grouping and Antibody Screening – Diagnostic Tests Example

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"Blood Grouping and Antibody Screening " is a great example of a paper on diagnostic tests. Homologous Transfusion Protocols  These are the directions followed when blood is intravenously infused into a recipient from a different person as a donor. The most prominent one is to make sure that the donor blood type and the recipient are a complete match. To achieve this, the blood  has to  be grouped, screened of antibodies, and the presence of  atypical antibodies identified.   Reasons for the use of anti-AB and anti-D in a manual method  Anti-AB and Anti-D would have been used in a manual method mostly because they help in detecting some of the weak subgroups of antibody A and antibody B, which in most cases may not agglutinate with reagents of anti-A or anti-B.

Anti-D is also used to test for the D antigen that comprises of the Rh blood group system.   Use of the control  The control well is used to prevent the false typing of  RhD  as either positive when it is negative or as negative when it is positive.   It is also used to check the availability of antibodies A or B in the test samples.   The use of group O cells vs.

patient plasma is often used as a control because blood group O does not have the antigens A or B to react with the anti-AB reagent, and, therefore, it no agglutination occurs.   A BIOVUE cassette  BIOVUE cassettes are used in blood grouping tests. Each cassette is made up of columns that are filled with glass particles that can separate agglutinated blood from that which is not agglutinated. The cassettes can be used manually or with a centrifuge and an incubator.   Significance of antibodies detected.   The detection of antibodies in the  hemolytic  disease of the  newborn  means that the red blood cells of the fetus are facing destruction by antibodies produced against them by the mother.

The production of these antibodies results from blood group incompatibility of the fetus and the mother. It occurs in cases where a mother who is  RhD  negative conceives a child who is  RhD  positive.   Tests  Antenatal patients with  placenta  praevia  and elective general surgery patients having TURPs can undergo a thorough ultrasound examination. This is because of the high sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis via the method of ultrasound. A follow-up test of blood should be done specifically targeting the presence of anti-D immunoglobin in blood in those with  placenta  praevia.   This procedure tests for incompatibility in other pregnancies.

Those patients with elective general surgery having TURPs can be tested for the presence of any blood antibodies  to  test for any adverse reaction.   Antigens in antibody screening  cells  Red blood cell antigens usually react with their corresponding antibodies to result in agglutination of  red blood cells. Therefore,   screening cells must have the antigens of the red blood cell antibodies that need to undergo screening. That way, agglutination will occur, thus easing the process of identification of blood groups.

Antigens present in these screening wells include antigen A, Antigen B, and Antigen AB.  

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