"Blood Grouping and Antibody Screening " is a great example of a paper on diagnostic tests. Homologous Transfusion Protocols These are the directions followed when blood is intravenously infused into a recipient from a different person as a donor. The most prominent one is to make sure that the donor blood type and the recipient are a complete match. To achieve this, the blood has to be grouped, screened of antibodies, and the presence of atypical antibodies identified. Reasons for the use of anti-AB and anti-D in a manual method Anti-AB and Anti-D would have been used in a manual method mostly because they help in detecting some of the weak subgroups of antibody A and antibody B, which in most cases may not agglutinate with reagents of anti-A or anti-B.
Anti-D is also used to test for the D antigen that comprises of the Rh blood group system. Use of the control The control well is used to prevent the false typing of RhD as either positive when it is negative or as negative when it is positive. It is also used to check the availability of antibodies A or B in the test samples. The use of group O cells vs.
patient plasma is often used as a control because blood group O does not have the antigens A or B to react with the anti-AB reagent, and, therefore, it no agglutination occurs. A BIOVUE cassette BIOVUE cassettes are used in blood grouping tests. Each cassette is made up of columns that are filled with glass particles that can separate agglutinated blood from that which is not agglutinated. The cassettes can be used manually or with a centrifuge and an incubator. Significance of antibodies detected. The detection of antibodies in the hemolytic disease of the newborn means that the red blood cells of the fetus are facing destruction by antibodies produced against them by the mother.
The production of these antibodies results from blood group incompatibility of the fetus and the mother. It occurs in cases where a mother who is RhD negative conceives a child who is RhD positive. Tests Antenatal patients with placenta praevia and elective general surgery patients having TURPs can undergo a thorough ultrasound examination. This is because of the high sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis via the method of ultrasound. A follow-up test of blood should be done specifically targeting the presence of anti-D immunoglobin in blood in those with placenta praevia. This procedure tests for incompatibility in other pregnancies.
Those patients with elective general surgery having TURPs can be tested for the presence of any blood antibodies to test for any adverse reaction. Antigens in antibody screening cells Red blood cell antigens usually react with their corresponding antibodies to result in agglutination of red blood cells. Therefore, screening cells must have the antigens of the red blood cell antibodies that need to undergo screening. That way, agglutination will occur, thus easing the process of identification of blood groups.
Antigens present in these screening wells include antigen A, Antigen B, and Antigen AB.