Complex Fluid and Electrolyte Balance – Diagnostic Tests Example

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"Complex Fluid and Electrolyte Balance" is a perfect example of a paper on diagnostics tests. Medical treatment and related monitoring for patients under the intensive treatment phase is vital due to the dilemma faced by numerous physicians in emergency departments. In this case, it is significant to recognize the role taken by physicians in emergency departments during the early stage of treatment (Andrews & Nolan, 2006). Moreover, a substantial part of treatment reinforcement and redefinition is offered in the emergency department. However, physicians take additional responsibilities of offering health care services for patients, who are admitted.

Nevertheless, complex and prolonged illnesses lead to overcrowded facilities and overextension of staff. The paper explores a case involving an individual experiencing complex fluid and electrolyte balance.   There is a need to understand various monitoring devices used in the emergency department for patients under intensive treatment (Lewis, Dirkse, Heitkemper & Bucher, 2010). In fact, understanding these devices facilitates the improvement of care efficiency and increases physician’ s confidence while dealing with patients. Complexities have been added by technological advancements to procedures of monitoring patients under the intensive care unit leading to increased efficiency and simplicity (Brown & Edwards, 2011).

In fact, this facilitates increased capability for physicians dealing with muddled situations, whereby they gain complete control. Nevertheless, treatment and related monitoring patients under intensive treatment phase can be explored through an overview of emergency medicine practice that involves respiratory, neurologic, and hemodynamic monitoring (Meyers &   Weingart, 2007). Physicians in the emergency department focus on monitoring respiratory conditions for critically ill patients as one of the vital procedures in the emergency department. Moreover, physicians have an obligation to assess the patient’ s hemodynamic condition as a way of ensuring sufficient organ perfusion and oxygenation of tissues (Roberts, 2008).

Nonetheless, monitoring of neurological function is highly complex thought attainable. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the sophisticated devices employed during neurological monitoring, though it surpasses the scope of numerous practices undertaken by numerous physicians (Jarvis, 2012; Brotto & Rafferty, 2012). Reasons for Monitoring Mr. B for Simple Chest Infection One of the reasons for monitoring Mr. B for simple chest infection is due to the information provided by his wife, whereby she indicated that Mr.

B had been suffering from a cold for the last ten days, increased congestion, and wet cough. On the other hand, it is evident that physicians in the emergency department had an obligation to conduct a respiratory assessment of the patient (Kuitert, 2011). Therefore, through physical examination, it was noted that his chest produced rattling and crackling sounds. In fact, this was an indication of restricted entry of air below the fourth vertebrae, while his respiratory rate was twenty-eight breaths per minute. Purpose of the CPAP, CVC, art line, and IDC                       The purpose of CPAP is to ensure that a patient is supplied with ample oxygen while eliminating a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide concurrently in his or her cells.

In addition, the instigation of CPAP decreases breathing tasks for the patient. Care of CVC is undertaken to reduce the chance of blood sample contamination in the process of drawing blood cultures, thereby ensuring that the results from blood sampling are accurate. The art line refers to a fine plastic tube, which is inserted into an artery for measuring blood’ s level of oxygen and pressure, while an IDC temperature sensor is used to measure and maintain the patient’ s core temperature (Scheinkestel, 2013).

At the stage of treatment, the patient’ s mean arterial pressure would be expected to be above or equal to 60 mm Hg, and blood pressure would be above or equal to 70 mm Hg (Lehman, Saeed, Talmor, Mark & Malhotra, 2013).       Two Psychosocial Effects of Highly Technical Medical Treatment on Individual Emotional and psychological trauma Highly technical medical treatment on a patient can cause emotional and psychological trauma given that the patient undergoes a stressful episode that changes their sense of security.

Moreover, this leads to a feeling of helplessness and vulnerability as the patient undergoes traumatically experiences that threaten his or her life and safety (Lemone & Burke, 2011). Therefore, highly technical medical treatment may be overwhelming and traumatic to individuals, even in situations when there is no harm (Robinson, Smith & Segal, 2013). In this case, the patent’ s emotional experience serves as a determinant of whether the event was traumatic.                   Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)             The highly technical medical treatment causes traumatic experiences that involve a normal feeling of sadness, anxiety, and disconnection (Tollefson, 2012).

However, if this experience does not fade, it becomes PTSD, whereby a patient is stuck with memories and contact sense of insecurity (Smith & Segal, 2013). In fact, patients feel like they will never get over the traumatic experience, though they may seek treatment or support in order to develop new skills for coping with this problem and overcome PTSD (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). In this case, PTSD develops after a traumatic experience that threatens patients’ life, thereby leaving them helpless in situations where it is uncontrollable or unpredictable.                       Nursing Care to Address these Effects Nurses can take responsibility for a therapist to address the effects of traumatic experience caused by highly technical medical treatment.

In fact, nurses establish quality relationships with patients in order to facilitate the process of addressing these effects (Levett-Jones, 2013). Moreover, they have to ensure that patients feel comfortable by earning their trust, making them feel respected and safe (Elder, Evans & Nizette, 2013). Therefore, the nurses create a sense of trust in these relationships in order to facilitate the process of healing from psychological and emotional trauma.

In this way, they are able to resolve the patients’ intolerable and memories.   Effects of the Medical Monitoring (CPAP, CVC, Art Line, IDC) On Mr. B and His Wife                       Both Mr. B and his wife witnessed CPAP procedures, whereby a rubber band positioned behind Mr. B’ s head masked his face to ensure that it is sealing around the chin. This indicated that the patient’ s life was in great danger because he was not able to breathe; thus, it led to anxiety and helplessness.

CVC and Art Line procedures involved the use of a needle to draw blood from the patient and insert a plastic tube into his arteries respectively; thus, this may have caused his wife to feel guilty and blame herself for the pain endured by her husband.   Discharge Plan, Including Ongoing Follow-Up with Allied Health Discipline Discharge plan and ongoing follow-up with allied health discipline derived from specialist clinic guidelines involve a series of appropriate practices, which underpin the discharge process and policies.

Patients are involved in their care, whereby the specialists offer acute and time-limited communication regarding the health care services to the patient (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2010). Policies and protocols involved in the discharge are crucial in addressing the needs of different patients and their families (State of Victoria, 2010). The discharge plan should facilitate the process of offering patients long-term care as a follow-up action by the specialist clinic (Levett-Jones & Bourgeois, 2011). In fact, this promotes consistency of the practice between the specialists; thus reinforcing the use of specialist clinical resources.               Services Required By Mr.

B on Discharge                       The process begins with sending a discharge summary to Mr. B’ s wife before the discharge in order to inform her that her patient is going to be discharged. In fact, this involves the dissemination of information that entails substantial elements of medication and care management before the sending discharge summary. They should also ensure that Mr. B has access to his discharge summary, document actions, and guidelines before discharge. Mr. B requires care for short and long-term issues associated with the management of home post-discharge and follow-up appointments that involve a medical specialist and outpatient clinic.

In addition, follow-up action should involve checking whether the support service is experiencing problems while managing the care plan.        

References

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Robinson, L., Smith, A. & Segal, J. (2013). Healing Emotional and Psychological Trauma Symptoms, Treatment, and Recovery. Helpguide.org. Retrived from: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/emotional_psychological_trauma.htm

Roberts, D. (Ed.). (2008). Medical–Surgical Nursing Review Questions (2nd ed.). Pitman, NJ: Academy of Medical Surgical Nurses.

Scheinkestel, C. (2013). Intensive Care Unit Information: Information about Procedures and Treatments. The Alfred Hospital. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredicu.org.au/assets/Miscellaneous-Downloads/ICUprocedurehandouts.pdf

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Smith, A. & Segal, J. (2013). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms, Treatment and Self-Help. Helpguide.org. Retrived from: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm

Tollefson, J. (2012). Clinical Psychomotor Skills: Assessment tools for nursing students (5th ed.). Katoomba: Social Sciences Press.

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