Laboratory Tests: Urinalysis – Diagnostic Tests Example

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"Laboratory Tests: Urinalysis" is a delightful example of a paper on diagnostic tests. Urinalysis can be described as the process of physically and chemically analyzing and examining the urine of a patient. The procedure involves a number of tests that can be used to detect the different compound compositions of the urine. Importantly, it can be used to detect various diseases in a patient due to the excretion components. As a nurse, I am obligated with the skill of carrying out such lab reports and providing a detailed summary of the patient's condition as seen in Charlie’ s case.

Homeostasis is vital for the human body where the body has to balance the internal and external conditions of the organs. The composition of urine fluctuates based on dietary intakes and metabolic activities. However, urinalysis can be used to determine organs that are not functioning properly due to the type of excretions and chemical compounds of the urine. As a result, a clinical examination of the urine can provide a cost-effective means of assessment of the body's health and kidney functionality. Procedure The first step included cordially welcoming the guest and trying to make him feel at ease.

The process engaged the patient in a conversation that assisted in helping him understanding why his urine sample is needed and ways of collection. This step ensures a modest way of patients due to the different behavioral attitudes (Carpenito, 2009). Finally, the process ensured that the patient has provided his/her urine sample that will be used in the analysis. Notably, the urine was collected at the patient's comfort. The sample also assisted in comprehending whether the patient has been on other medications that may cause discoloration of the urine before the test is carried out (Corbett, 2008).

The next step included the preparation of pieces of equipment used in the urinalysis process. The apparatus consisted of those items used by the patient and myself as the nurse. Additionally, it included third parties such as the disposal due to health matters. Additionally, my duty involved checking the expiry details of the reagent sticks that will be used for chemical analysis. This approach eliminates mistakes in the final urinalysis results that may lead to an inaccurate diagnosis of diseases.

A protective apron was also worn to prevent me from urine spills and other components used in the procedure. Decontamination of the hands was also applied to the application and wear of gloves. It ensures the nurse's care and hygiene that could be compromised by the patient's health (Fischbach and Dunning, 2009). Gloves should be worn following the right process to prevent tears that may cause health issues in the end. The other step included removing the already checked reagent sticks and ensuring extreme care to prevent their contamination before carrying out the test.

An important aspect to note is that the reagent pads were dipped into the urine until they were completely covered. This procedure ensures that the urine has been absorbed in all sections and minimizes the probability of errors (Gallieni, 2007). A tap of the stick removes excess urine that may have been absorbed due to the submerged submission. Finally, the stick was held in a horizontal position for a maximization of the results. Moreover, the results were read at the same time to prevent the dripping of urine that may affect the results.

Importantly, the results were concluded based on the manufacturer’ s terms of prescriptions. A variation in the production processes leads to a difference in the prescription terms for each stick (Kanegaye, Jacob, and Malicki, 2014). A clear and detailed record of each outcome was recorded to ensure competence in the patience’ s results. Results Various approaches led to the results of the patient. The physical characteristics of urine include odor, color, turbidity, pH, and volume among others.

The process includes a visual observation and analysis of the urine after being collected from the patient. Charlie’ s urine did not have alarming observations; hence, the need for a second test on the urine that includes a chemical analysis through the reagent dipsticks. A chemical analysis was used using dipsticks from a specific firm to make sure there are no errors. The sticks are coated with various chemicals that react differently with a range of components found in the urine. They can be used to detect the presence or absence of different chemicals from metabolic activities.

According to Charlie’ s test, the results provided qualitative results that would later be analyzed based on various health standards. Finally, a microscopic examination is also important in the revelation of different cells and crystals, and bacteria in the urine. Results from Charlie's chemical and microscopic test showed the presence of leucocytes, nitrites, and proteins. However, the proteins were at the required and normal rates for the human body. Urobilinogen was at the normal rates while the pH was balanced. Specific gravity was at 1.015 45 seconds after the emersion of the dipstick.

There were also negative results for ketone, bilirubin, and glucose in the urine. The results can be summarized in the following discussion. Discussion/Analysis pH pH includes a test on the glomerular filtrate of the blood plasma. Normal rates should range between 4.5 and 8.0 (Lindgren, Peterson and Thomson, 2014). Charlie’ s results presented a pH of 7.0. The results show that the patient had higher amounts of acids in his filtrates. Specific Gravity (sp gr) sp gr is determined by the presence of solutes of ions and proteins in the urine. It is directly related to urine osmolality (U-Osm).

Charlie's results showed that he had a specific gravity of 1.015. The results show that he has a normal specific gravity since it falls within the normal range of 1.002 and 1.035 (Lippincott's Nursing Procedures, 2009). Protein Filtered plasma proteins and others secreted by the nephron are found in normal urine (Strasinger and Di Lorenzo, 2008). Charlie’ s results presented a reading of 0.30 showing the presence of proteins but in low concentrations. There is no serious issue detected from the results. Glucose, Ketones, and nitrite Filtered glucose in the glomerulus is usually less than 1%.

Charlie's results showed the lack of glucose in his urine reflecting a normal condition in his body systems. Ketones, on the other hand, are a result of diabetic ketosis, or calorie deprivations are easily detected (Strasinger and Di Lorenzo, 2008). However, Charlie's results did not show any presence of the ketones. Nitrites can be used to show the presence of bacteria in the urine. As a result, the results show a positive identity of the nitrites in Charlie's urine.

Conclusion Observation and critical analysis of the results show that Charlie does not have serious health problems. However, the nitrite examination tested positive; hence, showing the presence of bacteria in his urine. Consequently, a more analyzed test should be carried out such as the microscopic test to clarify the specific bacteria (Schinstock et al. , 2012). The process will ensure that he is offered the right antibiotics with the precise prescription.


Carpenito, L. (2009). Nursing care plans & documentation. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Corbett, J. (2008). Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Fischbach, F. and Dunning, M. (2009). A manual of laboratory and diagnostic tests. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gallieni, M. (2007). Machiavelli and urinalysis. Kidney International, 72(7), pp.896-897.

Kanegaye, J., Jacob, J. and Malicki, D. (2014). Automated Urinalysis and Urine Dipstick in the Emergency Evaluation of Young Febrile Children. PEDIATRICS, 134(3), pp.613-713.

Lindgren, R., Peterson, L. and Thomson, R. (2014). Urinalysis: The Microscopic Detection of Bacteria Does Not Predict Significant Bacteriuria. American Journal of Infection Control, 42(6), p.S59.

Lippincott's Nursing Procedures. (2009). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McClatchey, K. (2002). Clinical laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins.

Schinstock, C., Semret, M., Wagner, S., Borland, T., Bryant, S., Kashani, K., Larson, T. and Lieske, J. (2012). Urinalysis is more specific and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is more sensitive for early detection of acute kidney injury. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 28(5), pp.1175-1185.

Strasinger, S. and Di Lorenzo, M. (2008). Urinalysis and body fluids. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

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