"Autism Spectrum Disorders" is a wonderful example of a paper on the disorder. ASDs are thought to be neurological in nature because of the presence of seizures for 22 to 30% of children with autism (Theoharides & Zhang, 2011, p. 168), lower serotonin binding and higher dopamine binding among adults with high-functioning autism (Nakamura et al. , 2010), associated diseases include trisomy 21, phenylketonuria, tuberous sclerosis, Williams syndrome, and Moebius syndrome, and other associated neurological findings (“ Neurodevelopmental Disorders” slide 15). Nakamura et al. (2010) noted that for adults with high-functioning autism, some studies noted decreased serotonin transporter binding in the medial frontal cortex, midbrain, and temporal lobe areas (p. 60), while other studies observed neurological findings in the cerebellar cortex (“ Neurodevelopmental Disorders” slide 16).
Theoharides and Zhang (2011) proposed that brain mast cell activation could be a result of allergic, environmental and/or stress triggers that could further create focal disruption of the blood-brain barrier and neuroinflammation, which could then lead to the development of seizures. Mast cells were perceived as the “ immune gate to the brain” and ASD patients are prone to stress and prenatal stress that are connected to autism.
The brain, significantly the hypothalamus, has numerous mast cells around the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and that stress can stimulate brain mast cells that lead to BBB disruption (Theoharides & Zhang, 2011, p. 169). Theoharides and Zhang (2011) suggested the importance of cellular brain activities to the development of ASDs. B) Regardless of this proposal, practitioners focus on behaviour in the assessment and treatment of autism. What are the critical behaviours for diagnosis, and how are these targeted for treatment? Use examples from the videos and Darcie’ s presentation. The critical behaviours for diagnosis of autism among children between 16 and 30 months are: lack of enjoyment of repeated physical movement that others do to them, such as bounding or swaying them lack of interest in other children dislike for climbing on things and some games such as peek-a-boo and hide-and-seek cannot hold eye-to-eye contact for more than a second or two oversensitivity to noise (i. e.
such as what the video “ Carly's Café - Experience Autism Through Carly's Eyes, ” demonstrated when Carly showed anxiety because of her oversensitivity to noise) does not respond to other people smiling or their faces in general (as early as 8 months old, many children already smile back when someone plays with them and enjoys games such as peek-a-boo according to “ Early Recognition Of Child Development Problems” a video that is public domain of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)) does not imitate the actions of others does not respond to his/her name when being called upon frequently stares at nothing or wanders around (Johnston slides 6-7). These symptoms are targeted for treatment by offering a treatment plan that merges different treatment approaches.
For the biomedical intervention, Johnston suggested a gluten-free diet to help manage symptoms. Educational interventions that fit the child’ s specific learning needs and concerns are proposed (i. e. choosing between mainstream education or special education when appropriate to the individual needs and concerns of the student). Johnston also recommended behavioural intervention through applied behaviour analysis (ABA) that use behavioural techniques and principles that aim to result in meaningful and positive behavioural changes. “ Early Recognition of Child Development Problems” asserted the importance of diagnosing children early because it can get them the timely interventions they need. C) Would knowledge of brain bases help in case formulation?
Why or why not? Knowledge of brain bases can help in case of formulation because it can help understand the causes and processes of autism more, thereby presenting novel opportunities for studying, diagnosing, and treating autism (Theoharides & Zhang, 2011, p. 170).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (209, February 11). “Early recognition of child development problems.” Rosary Films. Youtube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KrUNBfyjlBk
Fleischmann, C. (2012, May 24). “Carly's Café - Experience autism through Carly's eyes.” Youtube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmDGvquzn2k
Nakamura, K., Sekine, Y., Ouchi, Y., Tsujii, M., Yoshikawa, E., Futatsubashi, M.,. . . Mori, N. (2010). Brain serotonin and dopamine transporter bindings in adults with high-functioning autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(1), 59-68.
Theoharides, T., & Zhang, B. (2011). Neuro-inflammation, blood-brain barrier, seizures and autism. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 8, 168-172.