Impacts of Anorexia Nervosa – Disorder Example

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"Impacts of Anorexia Nervosa" is an outstanding example of a paper on the disorder. Anorexia Nervosa is a morbid fear of obesity, the relentless chase of thinness, and disapproval for even the minimally normal weight that results in the weight getting lesser than the normal range. Anorexia Nervosa is mostly observed in girls and the disorder commences during adolescence. Anorexia Nervosa is found in eight persons in every 100,000 per year (Hoek, 2006). Pathology While the exact etiology of Anorexia Nervosa is unknown, the development of this disorder can be attributed to a range of factors including the influence of media, portrayal, and consideration of normal body weight as unhealthy and unattractive, and peer pressure.

Excessive concern about weight triggers the risk for this disorder, though the onset of this disorder is also determined by genetic predisposition. Patients of Anorexia Nervosa commonly experience endocrine abnormalities including low luteinizing hormone levels, low triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels, and increased secretion of cortisol (Stunkard and Wilson, 2013). Female patients experience the cease of menses along with a decline in bone mass. In extreme cases, all major body organs and systems malfunction.

Patients also may experience metabolic alkalosis and dehydration along with a lowering of the serum K level. Mass of cardiac muscle reduces and chamber size decreases. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias may cause sudden death. Signs and Symptoms Signs and symptoms of anorexia nervosa include but are not limited to dieting in spite of being underweight, obsession with far grams and calories, lying about eating, preoccupation with food, and secretive food rituals. Various signs and symptoms are visibly noticeable on the body as a dramatic loss of weight, feeling fat in spite of being underweight, extremely critical of appearance, and fixation on body image with clothing (Smith and Segal, 2014).

The patient of Anorexia Nervosa also may take measures to forcefully change the body shape including undergoing surgery and using diet pills. Medical Treatment Anorexia Nervosa is medically treated by a team of healthcare professionals including a general physician, specialist counselor, nurse, psychologist, psychiatrist, pediatrician, and dietician. Depending upon the severity of the disorder and the particulars of a patient, the patient may be treated as a day patient, an outpatient, or an inpatient.

Treatment is a combination of psychological therapy, medicines, and guidance on diet to help gain weight safely. Psychological treatments commonly given to the patients of Anorexia Nervosa include cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive analytic therapy, focal psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and family therapy. Patients might need to be given Compulsory Treatment as allowed by the Mental Health Act because these patients have a high tendency to refuse treatment (NHS. uk, 2012). Occupational Therapy Goals                       Occupational therapy is directed at enabling the patients to participate in purposeful and meaningful activities.

The occupation of an individual is any activity that takes his/her time. The primary occupation of the patients of Anorexia Nervosa becomes their eating disorder and behaviors associated with it (Clemmer, 2009). The goal of occupational therapy is to re-establish the patient’ s interest in and connection with other healthy occupations in life. Occupational Therapy Plan of Care                       Occupational Therapy focuses on reminding the patient his/her earlier healthy life experiences through his/her sensory being. The patient is kept in a setting in which he/she can translate the verbal insights learned during psychotherapy into behaviors.

References

Clemmer, K. (2009, Sep. 24). Occupational Therapy for Patients with Eating Disorders. Retrieved from http://eatingdisorder.org/blog/2009/09/occupational-therapy-for-patients-with-eating-disorders/.

Hoek, H. W. (2006). Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 19(4), 389-394.

Nhs.uk. (2012). Anorexia Nervosa-Treatment. Retrieved from

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Anorexia-nervosa/Pages/Treatment.aspx.

Smith, M., and Segal, J. (2014). Anorexia Nervosa. Retrieved from

http://www.helpguide.org/mental/anorexia_signs_symptoms_causes_treatment.htm.

Stunkard, A. J., and Wilson, G. T. (2013). Anorexia Nervosa. Retrieved from

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric_disorders/eating_disorders/anorexia_nervosa.html.

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