"What is Autism" is an outstanding example of a paper on the disorder. ASD, an acronym for Autism Spectrum Disorder, is a severe developmental disorder that begins at birth or within the first two and a half years of life and is characterized by impaired social communication or interaction (Autism Research Institute, 2009). All children with autistic spectrum disorders have difficulties in social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication. Some autistic children may have learning difficulties and very limited communication with others. According to Sicile-Kira (2004), ASDs are considered to be the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain and these are four times more prevalent in males than females (p. 16).
The milder form of autism is called Asperger’ s syndrome, and children with this syndrome may have enough vocabulary but still have difficulty communicating with others. A faulty Social Environment is one of the main causes of Autism. Schreibman (2005) argues that psychogenic theory implicated parents in the etiology of autism. Bitterness, anger, despair, and guilt on the part of the parents, and thus autism is largely caused by the existence of unfavorable social conditions provided by parents (p.
76- 77). Even though the exact causes are unknown, psychologists think that Autism is mainly caused by brain differences in the way of brain development. Whether a child inherits genes from parents has also been a matter of discussion. Some researchers and scientists find a biological explanation that ‘ hot-spots have been found on certain chromosomes. Brain circuits have been found different in a child with ASD (Sicile-Kira, 2004, p36). Holding Therapy and Gentle Teaching are two widely accepted interventions that claim that many children with ASD have been fully cured.
Holding therapy and Gentle teaching have been practiced by many psychologists and thus it resulted in improving emotional, psychological, and physical development in thousands of children with ASDs (Simpson, 2004, p. 14- 20). Joint Action Routine has been applied as a method of autism intervention but it has less empirical studies to support the applicability and efficiency among children with ASDs. Fast ForeWord is another method of intervention and it, even though, showed effectiveness in bringing improvement in child language and communication skills, was not effective in curing autism completely Presentation agenda- (60 minutes) Topic: JOINT ATTENTION Purpose: To encourage an audience to think deeply about the impacts of autism in the family and in society as a whole. To discuss the hot topic of autism- JOINT ATTENTION Introduction – 10 minutes Greet the audience- (1 minute) The presenter introduces the topic.
(2 minutes) Detailed discussion on autism, psychological aspects, and behavioral changes in children with autism. (4 minutes) Needs of Joint attention in the present community- (3 minutes) Main discussion: 15 minutes Joint attention- A family of social abilities that should help people to regulate and respond to social interactions with others.
(3 minutes) How can joint attention help children become socially involved? (5 minutes). How joint attention can regulate social interaction between a child and society. Biological explanation- (5 minutes). In the first two years of the early development of a child, Infants develop increasingly nonverbal complex, and then sooner with verbal skills. In such a development stage, parents need increasingly to get involved in facilitating children to be socially involved. (Parents carelessness forms to be about 70% of the causes of autism) Conclusion – (2 minutes). Evaluation – (5 minutes) Evaluate the discussion- the presenter may ask few oral questions so that he can make sure whether the audience has been well involved in the topic discussion. Thanks, session Question- 2 2 legal issues highlighted in the video http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=_5iDoYuFlLo The YouTube video ‘ a child with autism left behind in 2008’ is an illuminating example that there are children deprived of academic programs and services despite the fact that ‘ NCLF act 2001’ strongly suggests schools and educational institutions not keep students away from what they deserve. The video shows that a 5 aged student with Autism has not received busing since he joined Chicago Public School.
The school provided parking only to the employees and it was highly difficult for the father to take the boy to his car which was quite far from the school premises. The video highlights the legal issue that the child is supposed to get busing transportation equally as other students get, but it has been denied due to that he was autistic. It also highlights that the school is supposed to provide a car parking facility as it was extremely difficult for him to take his child with autism every day to such a long-distance area. 655 schools in Chicago public schools have served 408,601 students providing better education and 80 % of these students were from low-income homes and 15 % are of limited English proficient (New Leaders for New Schools).
It shows that schools have been putting greater efforts in serving better education adhering to the law of ‘ NCLB’ . But the video reveals that there are schools that still need to give high priority to provide equal education and services to all levels of students. The parents of those students who are with autism or any other sorts of disabilities and disorders and are deprived of academic education, facilities, and services must seek legal support of ‘ No Child Left Behind Act- 2001’ .
The Act gives a right to students that all must be treated equally in order to bring development in educational reforms. Popham (2004) emphasizes that the NCLB law allows for students who suffer from severe mental disabilities to be tested with alternate assessments.
(p. 18). Pardeck (2006) stated that the third section of the act states accountability, that all schools and school districts will be held accountable for all major student groups making adequate yearly progress toward making ‘ proficient’ (p. 82). The NCLB act remains to be a strong legal support to the parents of disabled students who are deprived of educational rights, services, and facilities that are supposed to be offered by the schools.
Autism Research Institute (nd), What is Autism, Retrieved on 07/05/2009 from
New leaders for new Schools (nd), New Leaders for New Schools, Retrieved on 7/5/2009 from
Pardeck JT (2006), Children's rights: policy and practice, Edition: 2, Haworth Press
Popham WJ (2004), America's "failing" schools: how parents and teachers can cope with No
Child Left Behind, Illustrated Edition, Routledge
Schreibman LE (2005), The science and fiction of autism, Edition: illustrated,
Harvard University Press
Sicile-Kira C (2004), Autism spectrum disorders: the complete guide to understanding autism,
Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, and other ASDs, Perigee
Simpson RL and Myles BM (2004), Autism spectrum disorders: interventions and treatments for
children and youth, Corwin Press
YouTube (2008), Child with Autism left behind at a Chicago Public School, YouTube.com,
Retriebed on 07/05/2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5iDoYuFlLo