Adrenal Insufficiency – Endocrine System Example

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"Adrenal Insufficiency" is a perfect example of a paper on the endocrine system. High death and morbidity rates in patients who are in critical condition are because of adrenal insufficiency. It is common in women of the approximate age of 30 to 50years. Research indicates that patients with temporary adrenal insufficiency pain can be helped using drugs using various medicines like prednisone. However, permanent pain is resolved by hormonal replacement (Naggirinya et al. , 2020)Diagnostics testing for adrenal insufficiency is by a specialized doctor. This diagnosis is made is hard to notice since it comes gradually.

In that light, the doctor will advise the patient if the diagnostic testing should be appropriate. If a patient suspects to have the disease, several tests are useful to establish a full diagnosis. First, a blood test using the ACTH stimulation test to diagnose the patient has adrenal insufficiency. The process occurs through the injection of intravenous (IV) injection for humans. Further research shows that insulin tolerance can be used to lower the blood sugar of a patient. The patient certainly has adrenal insufficiency if the result indicates the patient's adrenal gland does not make enough cortisol (Struja et al. , 2017)Doctors are advised to use various methods to establish the cause of this disease.

Such practices include; use of antibody blood tests. An antibody blood test will help in finding the cause of adrenal insufficiency. If the result turns positive with antibodies, the diagnosis will be established that patient has adrenal insufficiency. Secondly, diagnosis can be made using computer tomography. This method is used to check the adrenal glands' changes by scanning the abdominal section of a patient.

Besides, this Research shows, an increase in the size of the adrenal gland is the definitive symptom of patients suffering from adrenal insufficiency (Bornstein et al. , 2016). Medication involves prescribing a hormonal medicine to replace the type of hormones your adrenal glands produce. This method involves orally taking hormones drugs to support the adrenal gland to make aldosterone, which levels the quantity of fluid and sodium in the human body. In exceptional cases like; surgery, pregnancy, illness, severe other conditions, etc. , treatment is done differently. For Patients who are on medicine, the doctor is advisable to give the patient a fixed amount of stress does until the patient recovers, and she or he can resume a standard dosage.

It recommended using IV corticosteroids and saline (Bornstein et al. , 2016). Patients with adrenal insufficiency and are ill should talk to doctors earlier. Earlier consultations will make it easy for the doctor to adjust the treatment medication for the patient. In that light, when the patient has a high fever, the dosage for treating the disease is increased. During pregnancy, treating the patient will be done usually, however, if the patient feels nausea and vomiting, the doctor should administer dosage to the patient information of shots.

According to Arafah et al. ,(2020), a Regular dosage for pregnant is prescribed after the delivery period. Proper follow-up plans should be available to patients with adrenal insufficiency needs. These plans should be conducted with their primary physician and as well as their endocrinologist. These people should ensure close monitoring of their patients to check for any inadequate replacements. Additionally, they are encouraged to conduct annual consultations with patients.

Another method, when a patient to have an imbalance in the physical condition of the patient, doctors can use a laboratory device. They are advised to carry out frequent laboratory analyses (Smans et al. , 2016). In cases where doctors cannot reach a diagnosis, patient care should be referred to another health facility. Referrals are only necessary if the doctor is facing some difficulty in coming up with a complete result. References should also be applicable when the insufficient adrenal patient needs a specialist opinion. According to the journal of General internal medicine, most doctors transfer their patients to another facility because of their access concerns.

The doctors should move their patients if they feel they have access concerns. Some physicians can also give referrals if they think their patients can work well with another doctor; this is generally an individual opinion (Eyal et al. ,2019).  

References

Naggirinya, A. B., Mujugira, A., Meya, D. B., Biraro, I. A., Mupere, E., Worodria, W., & Manabe, Y. C. (2020). Functional adrenal insufficiency among tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients: a cross-sectional study in Uganda. BMC Research Notes, 13, 1-6.

Struja, T., Briner, L., Meier, A., Kutz, A., Mundwiler, E., Huber, A., ... & Schuetz, P. (2017). Diagnostic accuracy of basal cortisol level to predict adrenal insufficiency in cosyntropin testing: results from an observational cohort study with 804 patients. Endocrine Practice, 23(8), 949-961.

Bornstein, S. R., Allolio, B., Arlt, W., Barthel, A., Don-Wauchope, A., Hammer, G. D., ... & Torpy, D. J. (2016). Diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 101(2), 364-389.

Arafah, B. M. (2020). Perioperative glucocorticoid therapy for patients with adrenal insufficiency: dosing based on pharmacokinetic data. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 105(3), e753-e761.

Smans, L. C., Van der Valk, E. S., Hermus, A. R., & Zelissen, P. M. (2016). Incidence of adrenal crisis in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Clinical endocrinology, 84(1), 17-22.

Eyal, O., Levin, Y., Oren, A., Zung, A., Rachmiel, M., Landau, Z., ... & Weintrob, N. (2019). Adrenal crises in children with adrenal insufficiency: epidemiology and risk factors. European journal of pediatrics, 178(5), 731-738.

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