Functions of Hormones – Endocrine System Example

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"Functions of Hormones"  is an outstanding example of a paper on the endocrine system. This paper highlights the importance of the endocrine system and various organs that participate in the proper functioning of this system. The human body is made up of a number of cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Various cells combine to form tissues and tissue combine to form organs whereas different organs gather to different types of systems that are functioning in our body(Gray and Goss, 1974 p. 293). Identification of organs: The following initials indicate the following organs. (Gray and Goss, 1974 p. 293) ‘ A’ denotes ‘ Pineal gland’ ‘ D’ denotes ‘ Thyroid gland’ ‘ E’ indicates ‘ Parathyroid gland’ ‘ F’ indicates ‘ Thymus’ ‘ H’ denotes ‘ Pancreas’ ‘ I’ denotes ‘ Ovaries’ (female reproductive organs) ‘ J’ indicates ‘ Testes’ (male reproductive organs) All of the above-identified organs play a crucial role in the endocrine system which is a collection of cells, glands, and tissues that secrete hormones and are responsible for the physiological and behavioral functions of the body.

These organs also secrete a number of hormones each of them has a distinguishing role. Hormones are chemical mediators that regulate functions like growth development, metabolism, sleep, and mood.

(Silverthorn, 2004,p. 500) The pineal body is responsible for the secretion of hormone ‘ Melatonin’ this hormones aid the reproductive system and helps in maintaining the day and night rhythm of the body which is also known as the circadian rhythm. The thyroid gland secretes three hormones namely’ thyroxin T4’ ‘ triiodothyronine T3’ and ‘ Calcitonin’ . T3 plays a significant role in maintaining the oxygen levels of the body. It also participates in elevating the BMR, therefore, regulating the protein formation. T4 shows less activity as compared to T3 but it performs a similar function.

Calcitonin stimulus osteoblast cells, therefore, participate in bone formation. (Mansouri and Chowdhury et al. , 1998, p. 89) Parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormones which help in regulating the concentration of calcium ions. Thymus liberates ‘ thymosin’ . It participates in mediating the immune response and the co-ordination of the immune system. Pancreas chiefly produces ‘ Insulin’ and ‘ Glucagon’ . It also secretes other hormones like somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin participates in uptake of glucose causing gluconeogenesis and mechanism of glycolysis. Glucagon takes part in glycogenolysis within the liver, it also aids in the mechanism of gluconeogenesis hence boosting the glucose level.

Somatization is suppressed insulin release and glucagon. It also alters the secretion of the pancreas. Pancreatic polypeptide promotes secretary activates. (Wierup and Svensson et al. , 2002,p. 65) Ovaries liberate a number of hormones like ‘ progesterone’ ‘ androstenedione’ ‘ estrogens’ and ‘ inhibin’ . Progesterone has a very significant role at the time of pregnancy. Androstenedione acts as a substrate for progesterone. Estrogen takes part in developing secondary sexual characters, protein formation, coagulation, etc. Inhibit strongly acts against the formation of FSH from the anterior pituitary gland. (Adams and Polson et al. ,1985,p. 1380) Testes that are the male reproductive organs aids in producing hormones like ‘ Androgens’ ‘ estradiol’ and ‘ inhibin’ .

Androgen regulates the mass of muscles, its strength, and density of bone, developing sexual characters, development of axially hair, scrotum, and growth of beard in males. Estradiol stops apoptosis whereas Inhibit leads to the formation of FSH. (Adams and Polson et al. ,1985,p. 1380) From the above discussion, it is evident that the endocrine system is a very important system of the human body. All the organs which are included in the endocrine system liberate various hormones that are essential for a variety of functions within the body.

References

Adams, J., Polson, D., Abdulwahid, N., Morris, D., Franks, S., Mason, H., Tucker, M., Price, J. and Jacobs, H. 1985.Multifollicular ovaries: clinical and endocrine features and response to pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone. The Lancet, 326 (8469), pp. 1375-1379.

Gray, H. and Goss, C. M. 1974.Anatomy of the human body.American Journal of Physical Medicine \& Rehabilitation, 53 (6), p. 293.

Mansouri, A., Chowdhury, K. and Gruss, P. 1998. Follicular cells of the thyroid gland require Pax8 gene function. Nature genetics, 19 (1), pp. 87--90.

Silverthorn, D. U. 2004.Human physiology. San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.

Wierup, N., Svensson, H., Mulder, H. and Sundler, F. 2002. The ghrelin cell: a novel developmentally regulated islet cell in the human pancreas. Regulatory peptides, 107 (1), pp. 63-69.

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