Predisposing Risk Factors for Kidney Disease – Endocrine System Example

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"Predisposing Risk Factors for Kidney Disease" is a significant example of a paper on the endocrine system.   Kidneys help regulate water, waste, salt, blood pressure and chemical levels in the body. When they do not perform well, toxins can accumulate in the body and can lead to impairment of normal body functioning or other fatal consequences. Kidney disease can lead to such undesirable outcomes. Aetiology of Kidney Disease                       Severe sepsis is one of the causes of kidney disease and it occurs when kidneys are damaged during intense shock. Traumatic injury with blood loss can cut blood flow into the kidneys causing acute kidney disease.

Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are pregnancy complications can also cause acute kidney disease. An enlarged prostate can obstruct urine flow and this can escalate into kidney disease. Conditions that tax weighs heavy on the immune system such as lupus, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS can cause chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease can also be caused by long-term exposure to drugs and toxins such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory intravenous street drugs (Hunt, 2011).                         Congenital defects that involve the malformation or obstruction of the urinary tract are another major cause of kidney disease.

An example of such a congenital defect is a condition when the bladder and the urethra join in a valve-like mechanism that blocks the urinary tract. Inheritable fluid-filled cysts that form gradually inside the walls of the kidneys can cause chronic kidney disease. Strep infection can cause the inflammation of glomeruli leading to a malfunction of the kidneys that can escalate into kidney disease (Thorpe & Walser, 2013). Predisposing Risk Factors for Kidney Disease                       Long-term exposure to heavy or addictive alcohol intake is a risk fact for kidney disease.

Research shows that alcohol intake correlates with socioeconomic status and those with low socioeconomic status are more prone to excessive alcohol consumption and are thus more likely to contract kidney disease than their counterparts with high socioeconomic status are. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of contracting kidney disease, and like alcohol consumption, it varies with socioeconomic status. High blood pressure can tamper with the kidney functioning predisposing individuals to kidney disease. Individuals with high cholesterol levels have narrow blood vessel lumen, which leads to high blood pressure and kidney disease in the long run.

Individuals above twenty-five years of age are at a high risk of high cholesterol levels (Himmelfarb, 2010).                           Individuals who are overweight and obese have a high risk of developing kidney disease. Overweight and obesity affect people of different ages and socioeconomic statuses. Physical inactivity is a predisposing risk factor for kidney disease. Women, people from low socioeconomic status and regions are among the groups of people who have noted to lead to low physical activity. Individuals who take a poor diet are at a high risk of contracting kidney disease.

Inadequate fruit and vegetable intake are some of the elements of a poor diet that predispose individuals to this disease (Hunt, 2011). Complications Associated with Kidney Disease                       Anaemia is one of the complications that accompany kidney disease, especially chronic kidney disease. Normochromic and normocytic anaemia are the types of anaemia that are commonly diagnosed with kidney disease patients. Kidney disease is also associated with mineral and bone disorders that draw primarily from renal osteodystrophy. Osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa cystica are some of the bone phenotypes that are noted in patients with kidney disease.

In the terminal stage of kidney disease, patients are prone to a risk of developing cardiovascular conditions. Patients with kidney disease can easily develop dyslipidemia and this increase with the escalation of renal failure (Thorpe & Walser, 2013).                       Kidney disease can lead to the retention of fluid that can cause the swelling of legs and arms and pulmonary oedema. Some patients with kidney disease report cases of higher impotence or decreased sex drive than people not suffering from the disease.

The disease can cause damage to patients’ central nervous system that further impairs their concentration and disrupts their personality. When the disease manifests during pregnancy, it can have debilitating risks to the mother and the fetus. Research has proved that kidney taxes the immune response hence increasing a patient’ s susceptibility to infections (Himmelfarb, 2010). Dialysis a Prospective Treatment for Kidney Disease                       Existing literature shows that the signs and symptoms of kidney disease are nonspecific and result from other illnesses. Patients with kidney disease experience nausea and notable alterations in their urine output.

The disease can also manifest in vomiting, loss of appetite and sleep problems. Blood tests can help in diagnosing for kidney disease by evaluating the level of urea and creatinine. Running a urine test can help evaluate the composition of urine and detect any abnormalities. Physicians sometimes refer patients for imaging tests to assess for kidney size and structure that can reveal the presence or absence of kidney disease (Nahas & Levin, 2009).                       The prognosis for patients with eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min per 1.73m2 and have persistent albuminuria is stage one of kidney disease.

Those with eGFR ranging between 60 and 89 mL/min per 1.73m2 are in the second stage. Stage three patients have eGFR of 30 to 59 mL/min per 1.73m2 whereas stage four has eGFR of between 15 to 29 mL/min per 1.73m2. End-stage renal disease or stage five patients have eGFR of < 15 mL/min per 1.73m2 (Hunt, 2011).                       The simulation of kidney functions is what makes dialysis help in the treatment of kidney disease. Kidneys have the capacity to regulate body fluid and acid-base concentrations.

DNA breakdown produces uric acid from protein metabolism. Blood urine nitrogen (BUN) helps indicate whether a patient’ s urea nitrogen is above the normal level thus indicating the condition of his or her kidneys. Creatinine (Cr) is a chemical waste product whose high levels indicate that a patient’ s kidneys are impaired (Thorpe & Walser, 2013). Management of Health while on Dialysis                       Reducing high cholesterol intake can help patients of kidney disease to prevent cardiovascular conditions. Increasing physical activity can help manage a patient’ s health while on dialysis but this should be with a consultation with the physician.

Patients of kidney disease are advised to maintain emotional well-being. This can be achieved by maintaining strong ties with friends and family and avoiding situations that can upset or anger them. While on dialysis, patients should seek treatment for conditions such as anaemia (Himmelfarb, 2010).                       In conclusion, the aetiology, predisposing risk factors, treatment, and management of kidney disease are known. Early diagnosis can help in a timely intervention that can prevent fatal outcomes.

References

Himmelfarb, J. (2010). Chronic kidney disease, dialysis, and transplantation. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.

Hunt, W. (2011). Kidney disease: a guide for living. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Nahas, A. & Levin, A. (2009). Chronic kidney disease: a practical guide to understanding and management. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Thorpe, B. & Walser, M. (2013). Coping with kidney disease. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

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