"The Role of Exercises" is a good example of a paper on fitness and exercise. Mrs. Patel lives in the UK but is originally from Gujarat. She is a 56-year-old woman who has always had trouble controlling her body weight and has never had a habit of regular exercise. One of the ways that her diet is inappropriate for good weight management is that she uses ghee in much of her cooking, which is a form of clarified butter that is used in a lot of Indian recipes. Mrs. Patel is currently in menopause and has been experiencing some of the grief that is associated with the changes her body has undergone in the past few years which has left her in a mild depression. As well, the loss of estrogens has contributed to a lowered natural tolerance to physical activity and increased the amount of weight that she is holding over her ideal weight (Collins 2007, p.
381). Recently, Mrs. Patel experienced chest pain and after a visit to the hospital was diagnosed with angina, which indicates that she has coronary artery disease. Considering her age, country of origin, weight problems, and her current diet, it is clear that in addition to coronary artery disease Mrs.
Patel has the potential to develop other age, weight, and lifestyle-related problems. The British Heart Association (2004, p. 6) has stated that South Asian people are 50% more susceptible to the event of heart disease than other cultures. Women from South Asia are more likely to suffer from obesity, with type 2 diabetes being at a rate that is six times that of the general population (The British Heart Association 2004, p. 48). Mrs. Patel is part of a population group that not only has high risks for heart disease but type 2 diabetes as well, so the need to change some elements of her lifestyle has a farther benefit than just affecting her current diagnosis for angina. Menopause, heart disease, and exercise Because of the changes that occur in the body during menopause, there is a documented increase in heart disease in women over the age of 55 by a rate of 10-fold (Collins 2007, p.
381). Cholesterol and triglycerides increase while HDL cholesterol decreases during the post-menopausal period. During the ten to fifteen years post the onset of menopause, which begins anywhere from the age of 45 to 55, the drop in estrogens is in direct proportion to the increase in heart disease experienced in women. Increasing the rates of exercise can significantly reduce symptoms of menopause caused by the reduction of estrogens. Symptoms such as depression, hot flashes, and insomnia can be positively affected through the use of an exercise program. The social aspect of life can be positively affected by developing a community with which to engage in daily exercise. Besides, there is some evidence that women, more than men, can experience an appreciated increase in lipid/lipoprotein benefits over an extended period of regular exercise (Collins 2007, p.
382). Exercise helps the heart to function, training the muscle to function at a higher rate so that it becomes more efficient in performing its tasks. The heart will transport and deliver the nutrients the body needs as well as its requirements for oxygen. Also, the pumping of the heart will clear away metabolic toxins (Wilmore, Costill, and Kenney. 2008, p. 141). The result of exercising the heart is that there is an overall reduction in the heart rate, allowing it to work at a less stressed rate. Pushing the heart so that it is forced to work harder allows for the systems of the body to all increase their efficiency, thus providing for an overall benefit to the body that will perpetuate that efficiency long after exercise has been finished for the day. The endocrine and metabolic systems respond to the use of exercise as well as the glycogen is stored more efficiently in trained muscles so that the mechanisms used in the synthesis are more efficiently stimulated.
This contributes to the more efficient use of insulin which helps to provide for decreases in the emergence of type 2 diabetes (Brown 2007, p. 84) Research is done by Christian, Cheema, Smith, and Mosca (2007) revealed that women who received education about the benefits of exercise on their condition after episodes of coronary problems were more likely to continue with exercise as a lifestyle change than those who underwent the current standard of aftercare that was given during the time of the research. As the research involved interviewing participants six months after their educational intervention, the comparison to the control group who did not receive the intervention showed that those who went through the education had a significantly lesser amount of overall pain than those who did not receive the additional information. Benefits of exercise Obesity rates are rising throughout the world and one of the more common beliefs is that the rise of obesity in the West is due to increased wealth that gives access to richer foods with higher levels of fat and sugar.
While this assessment may not be inaccurate, there has been a recent observed rise in obesity rates in low and middle-income countries in the past decade.
Since the 1970s there has been a marked decrease in the amount of physical activity that is used during a day and it is recently being theorized that it is the lowered expenditure of energy rather than the higher intake of calories that is causing a more profound influence on the increases seen in obesity (Jarrett 2011, np). According to Christian, Cheema, Smith, and Mosca (2007, p. 181), the activity of walking has been proven to affect CHD (Coronary Heart Disease), reducing the development of the disease and creating a provable impact on meaningful management of the related conditions.
The researchers recommend that walking be a prescription for CHD as there is evidence that increased dosages of walking decrease the events of heart disease when studied through a meta-analysis of a wide scope of research articles. According to Oliver (2009, p. 352) exercise is ‘ dose’ related in that the more physical activity one engages in during the day, the higher the benefit. All daily activities that involve movement can be considered exercise, thus taking up any additional activity that requires a daily regime can help in increasing exercise. Activities such as gardening, housework, shopping, and manual work can help to increase activity.
Taking up a new project that requires daily activity is another way to increase exercise. Conclusion To address the issues that Mrs. Patel has experienced at this stage of her life, the best possible ‘ prescription’ is for her to take time out of each day to go on a walk. Walking will engage the cardiovascular system and encourage a higher level of efficiency in the way in which the cardiovascular system works, as well as all of the other systems in her body.
While diet issues must also be considered, movement and an increase in the expenditure of energy will help to promote decreases in depression, decreases in incidents with her heart, and help to counterbalance the effects of the loss of estrogens that she has experienced at this time in her life. Because of her region of origin, Mrs. Patel is at a higher risk for other issues that are beyond that of angina that she has already experienced. Increasing her exercise and addressing her dietary issues will help to decrease the potential for type 2 diabetes for which she is also at risk.
The overall quality of life that Mrs. Patel is currently experiencing will likely increase through the addition of physical exercise to her daily life.
British Heart Association. 10 December 2004. Heart disease and South Asians. The Health and Social Care Information Centre. [Online] Available at http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en /documents/digitalasset/dh_4102918.pdf.
Brown, Lee E. 2007. Strength training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Christian, Allison H., Ayesha F Cheema, Sidney C. Smith, and Lori Mosca. 2007. Predictors of quality of life among women with coronary disease. Quality of Life Research. vol. 16, pp. 363-372.
Collins, Peter. 2007. Women and heart disease. East Sussex: Taylor and Francis, Inc.
Jarrett, Christian. 2011. The rough guide to psychology. London: Rough Guides.
Oliver, Susan M. 2009. Oxford handbook of musculoskeletal nursing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wilmore, Jack H., David L. Costill, and W. Larry Kenney. 2008. Physiology of sport and exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Zheng, Henry, Nicola Orsini, Janaki Amin, Alicja Wolk, Van Thi Thuy Nguyen, and Fred Ehrlich. 2009. Quantifying the dose-response of walking in reducing coronary heart disease risk: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Epidemiology. vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 181-192.