What is Ulcerative Colitis – Gastrointestinal System Example

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"What is Ulcerative Colitis? " is an engrossing example of a paper on the gastrointestinal system. Ulcerative Colitis is classified as a disease that is known as one of the inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammation in this condition affects the superficial mucosa layer of the colon; the large intestine, there is always rectum involvement and a continuation along the colon with a clear distinction between those areas that are healthy and those that are affected (Sephton, 2009). Symptoms include watery and possibly bloody diarrhea, as well as mucus and pus in various amounts.

Abnormal abdominal sounds may be heard in the abdominal quadrants upon auscultation and be accompanied by abdominal pain. Fever, pain in the joints, weight loss, and GI bleeding may also accompany nausea and vomiting (Board, ADAM & National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2012) What are the causes of the disease? The exact cause is not known. Some of the causes believed to cause the disease include; Genetic Contributions poor health Breastfeeding, A appendectomy, Smoking Among other Causes What are the possible treatments for the disease? Conventional treatments include antibiotics, corticosteroids, aminosalicylates, and immune modulators. Corticosteroids are most often used during acute phases.

Preventative measures to avoid flare-ups during times of remission usually involve behavioral changes. It is commonly advised that nutrient deficits be checked for and corrected as UC is associated with several. Vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin K, folic acid, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, and magnesium are all important elements are any deficiencies should be balanced through many if not all of these factor in any disease that has immune system implications as a causative factor. Special diets depending on chemistry results can be prescribed for prevention along with in some cases the use of probiotics in the diet.

Specific nutrients are also thought to play roles in prevention. Current ResearchMajor areas of ongoing research in ulcerative colitis involve genetics factors and genetic markers that are predictive of the disease. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 identified as a genome increasing susceptibility for UC (Brand, 2012). Despite this knowledge, its phenotypic effects are unclear and being researched. Phenotypic effects are those effects that are observable due to the presence of this genome. One Korean study concluded that there was no association between the genomes TNFSF15 and IL23R in a Korean research group.

This genome has been mentioned in reports and research findings among Caucasians though findings and conclusions have been inconsistent. Though the TNFSF15 genome for some reason shows a small association with UC it is in Caucasian male patients only (Kyuyoung, 2011). A third research study identified that UC shares many susceptibility genes with Crohn’ s disease, which is good cause for further study as they are both irritable bowel syndromes and understanding the different genomes present in each case allows for a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the disease as well as being better prepared to treat and prevent the disease.

(Leonard, 2010). The genetic association discovered through research highlights the importance of alterations in barrier function and cell-specific innate responses. Studies suggest that UC is less extensive at later stages of life though symptoms are more likely, to begin with, more severe initial onsets of the disease. Severe episodes risk the development of toxic megacolon associated with a higher rate of fatality. Due to age and general health surgery is not often initially elected in elderly patients; despite this, as surgical intervention and medical therapy have improved mortality rates among elderly patients have improved.

These patients are at a higher risk for complications from UC and must be more closely monitored (Nikolaos, 2001). RecommendationsThose who have been diagnosed with UC are recommended to have a colonoscopy with biopsy every 1 to two years depending on how long they have been diagnosed with irritable bowel disease and which side of the colon has primarily been affected. Those with no history of bowel disease are recommended to have a colonoscopy at certain intervals after the age of 50 to screen for colorectal cancer.

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