"Definition of Electronic Medical Record" is an exceptional example of a paper on health system. The electronic medical record is the storage of health-related information of an individual in an electronic device (Neal para. 6, n. d.). The information which is stored in the electronic device is created, gathered and managed by the people who are licensed medical practitioners and who are assigned with the responsibility of maintaining individual’ s health and care (Neal para. 6, n. d.). The electronic medical record (EMR) is maintained by the staff of a single organization (Neal para. 6, n. d.).
The intention of the EMR is to help other colleagues to access the health-related information of the patient quickly. When the electronic record is created by people working in different organizations and who are responsible for the health of the individual, then it is called an electronic health record (EHR) (Neal para. 7, n. d.). Hence, EHR is nothing but an EMR with health-related information of an individual stored by people working in different health-related organizations. Definition of Personal Health Record According to NAHIT, the Personal health record is an electronic record of an individual in which the information about the health-related problems is stored with the help of inputs from people (who are licensed medical practitioners) working in different medical organizations (Neal para. 18, n. d.). Difference between the EMR and PHR The difference between the EMR and PHR is that while maintaining the record of the EMR is the responsibility of the medical practitioners looking after the individual, maintaining the record of the PHR is a responsibility of the individual (Neal para. 18, n. d.).
The PHR is maintained by the individual and he has the authority to decide what information should be stored in it and who should be given access to it (Neal para. 18, n. d.).
In addition to the information related to health like treatments and test results, the PHR also can be updated with the health-related lifestyle information like diet, exercise plan, over-the-counter prescriptions etc. (American Health Information, 2007, p. 2). The PHR not only stores the medical treatment related information of the individual but also includes the information about the other aspects of life which are related to the individual like living wills, medical power of attorney, health insurance information, opinion of specialists etc (American Health Information, 2007, p. 2).
As it is the individual who owns and manages the PHR, the information in the PHR comes from both, the people who provide the health care service to the individuals and the individuals themselves (Groen, Goldstein & Nasuti, 2007 ). Hence, PHR is more wide and complete in its information content than the EMR. Status of implementation of EMR and PHR. It has been observed that compared to the year 2009, there is a considerable increase in the implementation aspect of the EMR in organizations (Health Care It Spending, n.d. ).
22% of organizations have made EMR fully operational across all its departments compared to only 17% in the year 2009 (Health Care It Spending, n.d. ). 26% of organizations have made EMR fully operational in one facility compared to 24% of organizations in the year 2009 (Health Care It Spending, n.d. ). This shows that there is a marked improvement in implementing EMR in organizations. The implementation of PHR has started developing from early 2000 (Groen, Goldstein & Nasuti, 2007 ).
However, the later progress was not consistency as even by the year 2007, the development and the implementation of PHR in the organizations were in infant stage (Groen, Goldstein & Nasuti, 2007 ). It is believed that for the PHR system to be implemented fully even by more than 50% of the organizations, it's going to take ten more years (Groen, Goldstein & Nasuti, 2007 ). THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PHR PHR systems are categorized on the basis of their ownership (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 23). The advantages of the Health 2.0 category PHR are as follows: One can access the data from anywhere (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 24). The use of open interface makes it possible to import the data directly from the health care provider (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 24). The disadvantages of the Health 2.0 category PHR are as follows: The transfer of personal data into the commercial domain has made the data vulnerable to security threats (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 24).
The threat to privacy has made this category of PHR a victim of many critics (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 24). Accessing the data through mobile is possible only if there is an internet connection (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 24).
This restricts the accessibility of the data. The advantages of the PHR maintained by an individual: As the PHR is maintained by the individual, the data stored in it is secure (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 24). According to Tang et al. (2006), “ the individual PHR provides more control over the access to the data” which is stored in the PHR (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 24). The disadvantages of the PHR maintained by an individual: The disadvantage of the PHR maintained by the individual is the possibility of not getting the data updated regularly and sincerely (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 25). According to Tang et al.
(2006), there is a possibility of losing the data in case of technical malfunction as the PHR maintained by an individual does not have a back-up system (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 25). Also, the update of the information depends on the ability of a person to comprehend medical terms and technical information (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 25). If the individual handling the PHR is not literate enough, then it becomes difficult for him to process the information (Olla & Tan, 2009, p. 25). Advantages and disadvantages of the EMR The advantages of the EMR as follows: The EMR, being a device carrying all the relevant and reliable information regarding the medical condition of the patient, can provide the health care organizations with an opportunity to improve the quality of their service and ensure the safety of the patient (Gurley & Rose, n.d. , p. 1). Due to its potential to create a paper-free workplace, it reduces the costs of the organization and increasing the efficiency at the same time (Gurley & Rose, n.d. , p. 1). The disadvantages of the EMR as follows The implementation of EMR can be an excessively costly affair (Gurley & Rose, n.d. , p. 4). The lack of appropriate technical knowledge makes it difficult for people who are medical practitioners, to use the EMR(Gurley & Rose, n.d. , p. 5).
American Health Information Management Association (2007). The Value of Personal Health Records: A Joint Position of Statement for Consumer of Health Care. Retrieved from http://www.ahima.org/dc/positions/documents/MicrosoftWord-AHIMA-AMIAPHRStatement-final2-2007.pdf
Groen, P., Goldstein, D. & Nasuti, J. (2007). Personal Health Record (PHR) Systems: An Evolving Challenge to EHR Systems. Retrieved from http://www.hoise.com/vmw/07/articles/vmw/LV-VM-08-07-26.html
Gurley, L. & Rose, B. (n.d.). “Advantages and disadvantages of the Electronic Medical Record”. Retrieved from http://www.aameda.org/MemberServices/Exec/Articles/spg04/Gurley%20article.pdf
Neal, H. (n.d.). “EHR vs EMR What’s the Difference?”. Retrieved from http://www.ehealthonline.org/articles/article-details.asp?Title=EHR%20vs%20EMR%20What's%20the%20Difference?&ArticalID=2239&Type=PERSPECTIVE
Olla, P. & Tan, J. (2009). Mobile Health Solutions for Biomedical Applications. PA:IGI Global.