Health Assessment Techniques of Different Age Groups – Health System Example

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"Health Assessment Techniques of Different Age Groups" is a perfect example of a paper on the health system. Health assessment entails physical examination with the aim of evaluating intended structural findings by making use of palpation, percussion, observation, and auscultation procedures (D'Amico & Barbarito, 2012). This paper will critically analyze techniques of examination for the different groups of pediatric and adolescents in relation to adult approaches. Newborn The physical checkup for newborn babies immediately after birth is important for determining the health and fitness nature of the child. Hearing tests (audiometry) are necessary checks used to determine the ability to hear in people.

This is a common problem in children that is commonly caused by the glue ear (Bickley, 2013). Since newborn babies are unable to speak, the otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) are used. These tests involve the introduction of noise stimulation equipment and measuring the infants’ reception (Argolo Sena-Yoshinaga et al. , 2014). They are done best when the child is asleep unlike in adults where the pure tone audiometry test requires a patient to signal the health professional by either raising their hands or pressing a button when they hear a tone. Infants In infants, the examination of the anatomy and physiology of the head is important for child development.

For assessment, doctors carefully examine the sutures that feel like ridges and fontanelles that feel like concavities when palpated. The fontanelle is carefully observed to ensure that it reflects intracranial pressure. Percussing the parietal bone is also used to determine the development of the cracked pot before the closure of the cranial structures. With the continuous exposure of central nervous diseases, practitioners use the transillumination method.

This method introduces bright flashlight in a dark room to illuminate the infants’ structure (Bickley, 2013). In adults, the common assessment method used is auscultation that listens to possible movements and present tumours. In infants, auscultation of the skull cannot yield results as systolic bruit in temporal areas is common. Young and School-aged Children As children continue aging, the models of examining their lungs become more similar to the ones used in adults. The use of the stethoscope is carried in an encouraging environment as some children may fear its contact.   The most commonly used method is auscultation by taking deep breaths.

However, in children, this method does not really work as it is the case in adults who are able to hold and control breathe when requested. In young children, the demonstration may be employed, but in cases when it is unachievable, it would be easier to let such children breathe normally, or introduce forced expiratory maneuvers (Bickley, 2013). Adolescents Physical examination in adolescents becomes similar to bodily changes take effect. Being a transition stage that is characterized by physical and psychological changes, the genital examination is very important during this stage.

In adolescents, stirrups and other investigation equipment are not introduced as they may frighten the adolescent. The practitioner examines the genitalia for external characteristics such as pubic hair, the size of the clitoris, and the presence of any lesions. Visualization is done by gently touching and separating the parts. In adults, practitioners inspect and palpate both internal and external parts including manual uterine palpation (Qaseem et al. , 2014). Additionally, inspection equipment is used to extract vaginal discharge that is tested in the laboratory (Bickley, 2013). All in all, health assessment is a way of obtaining information about patients’ health based on their own words and perceptions.

The differentiation of examination between age groups exists as an important element that is not intended for creating exhaustive lists, but rather highlighting important aspects present in specifically selected age groups that differ to adult examination. The emphasis of examination differs from one age group to the other depending on various body systems.

References

Argolo Sena-Yoshinaga, T et al., (2014). Neonatal hearing screening with automated auditory brainstem response: using different technologies. Audiology Communication Research, 19 (1).

Bickley, L. (2013). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

D'Amico, D., & Barbarito, C. (2012). Health and physical assessment in nursing (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Qaseem, A., Humphrey, L., Harris, R., Starkey, M., and Denberg, D. (2014). Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of, Physicians. "Screening pelvic examination in adult women: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians.". Annals of Internal Medicine, 161 (1): 67–72. doi:10.7326/M14-0701

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