Causes, Effects of an Infectious Disease – Infections Example

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"Causes, Effects of an Infectious Disease" is a great example of a paper on infections. The primary purpose of the study was to investigate the leading cause of the outbreak of influenza and its prevention techniques to the disease. It's an infectious disease caused by Orthomyxoviradae, an influenza virus. It is transmitted through the air from an infected person through respiratory tracts when one sneezes, coughs, and talks to the uninfected person. It also can be spread by touching surfaces with droplets with the virus. It takes one to four days before the symptoms show up.

Although many people think influenza is just a common cold, it is a severe respiratory illness that is highly contagious and threatens some people's lives leading to death Uyeki et al. , (2019). Many influenza-related deaths are times they are not recognized or reported since the disease kills silently. Influenza can worsen and cause cardiovascular disease and lead to a heart attack or worsening congestive heart failure. About 5-10% of children and 20-30% of adults are reported to have the condition globally. Influenza kills up to 650 000 people globally, and every year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

By this, it means that there should be prevention measures, and vaccinations are vital, especially direction for safeguarding the children, which are young, elderly persons, expectant mothers, and people whose immune system is weak. Influenzas OutbreakCausesIt breaks out seasonally, where it occurs in a seasonal epidemic, and the rates of infections to children and old folks are the highest compared to those of adults. It is transmitted through airborne contact when one breathes in infected air, and a person spreads through their breath, its transmission spreads from one person to the other. Effects and SymptomsAs a contagious infectious disease, most patients, especially children, and older people find themselves hospitalized and may lead to death.

Diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea are the symptoms observed in children while other signs are coughing, body and muscle ache, fatigue, sneezing, runny nose, sore throat, and some fever and headaches. Preventions and ControlTo have complete prevention and control is sometimes difficult since the disease is widespread, but some measures can be taken to prevent its spreading, and the disease can be cured and maintained.

To do so, one can observe the high level of hygiene and stay in a well-ventilated area like rooms, keep windows and doors open to help the exchange of air, since unaired space and moisture can build up to unsafe environments but cleaning the air with some filter and keeping the area free from pathogens. Since it is a respiratory infectious disease, one can take steps from stopping its spread by; Firstly, staying away from people who have influenza's illness symptoms and if one gets the disease, one can stay home if possible for at least 24hours if the fever symptoms like is all gone and avoid going near people to avoid infecting them with the disease.

Secondly, one can try not to touch the mouth, eyes, and nose since, by this, the viruses spread. Moreover, washing hands is done often by using running water with soap and drying them off with clean linen, especially after one sneeze or coughs, or when one cannot use water, it is advisable to use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

Lastly, covering of nose and mouth with tissue or sleeve when coughing or sneezing and after its use, one can throw it away and wash the hands. But the best way is by getting a vaccine and also treatments from the doctors' someone who is at a high risk of developing complications from influenza Young et al. , (2019). Advice is given that is seeking a consultant for the healthcare immediately after acquiring the disease symptoms since there is a benefit from medicines, which are antivirals and drugs which relieve the symptoms of influenza. Older people and expectant mothers to be prioritized in taking the treatment since they are at risk of complications.

For medicines, antivirals are used just for the maintenance of the disease outbreak. A prevention technique that can be used is like drinking plenty of liquids and taking plenty of rest; by doing so, the body is kept hydrated, and the immune system is boosted. Another way of increasing the immune system is by regular exercise, which will enable the body to fight infectious diseases like influenza.

The use of vaccines, however, has been seen to tend to prevent and even to cure the disease. The first vaccine, which was made in 1945 in the United States of America, was commonly made to kill the viruses injected into the muscles; another vaccine is orally taken by nasal spraying, which weakens the viruses, but all the vaccines are given according to the age. ConclusionAny advice is given by the experts of health that the one can be vaccinated during spring and winter since its outbreak is highly recorded during those seasons, and also people should be aware of influenza when traveling.

Although vaccination is advised, one should be mindful of its effects, like swelling and reddening of the injected area. More so, when the nasal vaccine is applied, there is a chance of wheezing, and, consequently, consideration should be taken by the physician of a person with a risk of medical conditions. Supervision should be done by someone who provides healthcare, capable of managing allergies, and recognizing the state.


Uyeki, T. M., Bernsteina, H. H., Bradley, J. S., England, J. A., File Jr, T. M., Fry, A. M., ... & Ison, M. G. (2019). Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2018 update on diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management of seasonal influenza. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 68(6), e1-e47.

Young, J. D., Abdel-Massih, R., Herchline, T., McCurdy, L., Moyer, K. J., Scott, J. D., ... & Siddiqui, J. (2019). Infectious Diseases Society of America position statement on telehealth and telemedicine as applied to the practice of infectious diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 68(9), 1437-1443

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