Nosocomial Infections – Infections Example

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"Nosocomial Infections" is a worthy example of a paper on infections. Nosocomial infections are considered as the infections which occur within 48 hours of hospital admission; within a span of 3 days after discharge or even a month after undergoing an operation (Ziebuhr et al. , 2006). Nosocomial infections have been found to affect 1 out of 10 patients. In most cases, almost a third of all the nosocomial infections which occurs is preventable. One of the easiest methods for preventing the occurrence of nosocomial infection is hand washing. Hand washing need to be practised by all individuals in a hospital set up.

Healthcare workers should not take gloves as a substitute to hand washing. Inadequate antibiotic therapy in hospitals has been greatly associated with nosocomial infection (Teresa, Jarvis, Culver & Hughes, 2001). Most cases of nosocomial infections are due to Gram-positive bacteria. The most common pathogens known to cause nosocomial infection are the Staphylococcus auresus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and the E. Coli. Out of the three, Staphylococcus aureus, has been considered as the predominant pathogen. Antibiotic-resistant by the bacteria is one of the main cause of the increasing cases of nosocomial infection, especially in the ICU.

Bacteria usually develop resistances after acquiring new genetic composition. Hospitals, nursing homes as well as the outpatient facilities are considered as the main places where one can obtain a nosocomial infection (Eriksen, Iversen, & Aavitsland, 2005). The most common nosocomial infections affecting individuals especially from the hospital includes the surgical wound infections, respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections together with the genitourinary infections. In the hospitals, a breach in the infection control practices has been considered to be the main cause of nosocomial infection.

Nosocomial infections are not only caused by bacteria but can also be caused by fungi and viruses. Fungi such as Candida albicans and the aspergillus together with the viruses that includes the respiratory syncyctical virus and the influenza virus have been highly associated with several cases of the hospital-acquired infections (Eriksen et al. , 2005).   More emphasizes should be put on the prevention of nosocomial infection. Prevention of nosocomial infection usually entails exercising a high level of personal hygiene. This can be achieved by ensuring that there are proper handwashing practices by the hospital staff, there is complete sterilization of the medical equipment used on the patients as well as ensuring there is a clean and sanitary environment in the health facilities.

This is done in an effort to ensure that all the microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections have been eliminated completely (Ziebuhr et al. , 2006). Nosocomial infections have been known to have a negative impact on our life. Several cases of morbidity, mortality as well as financial burden have been as a result of nosocomial infections. Management of patients in an intensive care poses a great risk towards the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

At the same time, inadequate use of antibiotic has also been attributed as one of the causes of poor outcome and development of bacterial resistance ((Teresa et al. 2001). Therefore in order to address the issue of nosocomial infection, there is a need to take seriously the infection control measures.   There is also a need to have the up to date knowledge on the emerging pathogens and their resistance profile in order to enhance treatment against any emerging case of nosocomial infection.

To effectively avoid cases of nosocomial infection, there is a need to have a shorter duration of the treatment while using the recommended antibiotic dosage in order to prevent cases of nosocomial.

References

Eriksen, H. M., Iversen, B. G., & Aavitsland, P. (2005). Prevalence of nosocomial infections in hospitals in Norway, 2002 and 2003. Journal of Hospital Infection, 60, 40–45.

Teresa, C., Jarvis, W., Culver D. & Hughes J. (2001). Nosocomial Infection Surveillance. CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001772.htm

Ziebuhr, W., Hennig, S., Eckart, M., Kränzler, H., Batzilla, C., & Kozitskaya, S. (2006). Nosocomial infections by Staphylococcus epidermidis: how a commensal bacterium turns into a pathogen. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 28, 14–20.

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