The Lower Urinary Tract Infection – Infections Example

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"The Lower Urinary Tract Infection" is a well-written example of a paper on infections. The author of the document is a health practitioner who is obliged to offer medical assistance to a fourteen years old girl. The girl experienced pain while urinating and the symptoms given by the girl made the health practitioner detect that the girl could be suffering from a urinary tract infection (UTI). The lower urinary tract infection comprises one of the UTI infections; it is characterized by pain during urination and also an urge to frequently urinate (Torre 2009, p. 49).   Bladder infection is also another term used to refer to UTI.

The infection affects some parts of the urinary tract. Simple cystitis entails a UTI infection that affects the lower part of the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is a condition whereby the upper part of the urinary tract is infected (Young 2010, p. 25). Several ways can be used by the practitioner to diagnose the girl with UTI. Physical examination is one of the processes as discussed in the document (Kauffman 2014, p. 76). Discussion       Rationale The fourteen-year-old girl is complaining of painful urination.

As a practitioner, the writer detected that the girl was suffering from simple cystitis UTI. This conclusion  was  prompted by the symptoms such as pain when urinating and the frequent passing of urine. Pain in the abdomen (the lower tummy) is another symptom of the condition (Young 2010, p. 26). Painful urination aided the writer to understand that the fourteen years old girl was suffering from simple cystitis. Most of the infections in the urine come as a result of germs or bacteria that originate from the bowel. Some of the bacteria are present in the anus after the passage of the stool.

In some cases, the bacteria can move to the urethra and later to the bladder. The bacteria that thrive in the urine multiply quickly and result in an infection (Brink and Skott 2013, p. 18). Diagnosis            As a medical practitioner, clarity is an important aspect and hence it is always advisable to carry out the specified tests so as to confirm the diagnosis. It also helps to understand the main cause of the infection and to what extent the patient has been infected.

The writer would have established the girl’ s infection in the urinary tract by taking a sample of the girl’ s urine and testing it (Brink and Skott 2013, p. 19).   Urine test is one of the methods used in UTI diagnosis. In the case of young women who most of the time are exposed to lower risk of contracting the infection, the practitioner may not take a urine test but may diagnose the infections on the urinary tract on the basis of the description of the symptoms.

The girl is young and at a lower risk of contracting infections; therefore, the practitioner relied on the symptoms that were present in a fourteen-year-old condition to diagnose her (Bickley et al. 2013, p. 45). However, the assumption may not be satisfying. The writer first interviewed the girl on her previous medical status related to her urinary or reproductive system. The possibility of pregnancy will also be put into account by assessing whether the girl is sexually active. The writer will then carry out a physical examination of the patient.

It is a process used in evaluating the objective anatomic findings. It takes place through observation, percussion, palpation, and auscultation (Brink and Skott 2013, p. 20).   The main aim of carrying out these four techniques is to validate the information that the patient who in this case is the fourteen years old girl has provided concerning her health history. They also help in the verification of suspected physical diagnosis (Brink and Skott 2013, p. 21).     The writer is aware of the legal issues that need to get considered when carrying out a physical examination since each practitioner has to be vigilant in this litigious society.

The writer will, therefore, develop a caring and trusting relationship with a girl so as to avoid any form of malpractice claims. Since the girl may easily claim to have sexually abused, physically harassed, or was insufficiently informed, the writer will be informing the girl on what she will expect and where to expect it, and how it will make her feel. The writer will then document all the procedures and assessments including any injury that may occur during the physical examination (Torre 2009, p. 50). The inspection will be the first step that the writer will carry out to the patient.

The inspection process, however, will get carried through the entire examination process. The inspection entails the use of the practitioner’ s smell and vision senses to observe the patient consciously.   The writer will, however, first explain to the girl that she will get inspected mainly on her stomach and chest visually. Visual inspection can bring out very many facts (Kauffman 2014, p. 77).     The breathing process will help the writer to recognize any part of the body that could be functioning abnormally.

The inspection will also entail smelling where the writer's olfactory sense will provide essential information related to the girl’ s health status. If a girl will have a fruity breath odor the writer will note the possibility of diabetic ketoacidosis (Kauffman & Roth-Kauffman 2007, p. 34). The writer being a well-experienced practitioner will be keen to note any form of classic odor emitted by pseudomonas infection which would confirm the existence of urinary tract infection hence confirming the writer’ s diagnosis (MacLeod et al.

2009, p. 47).   The writer will then palpate the girl. The process forms the physical examination’ s second step. The process entails touching the patient in a therapeutic way to obtain specific information. The writer will have to explain to the girl the main aim of carrying it and also where, how, and when the touch will take place. The writer will also have to warm hands before palpating since cold hands can cause some tension on the patient’ s muscles. The writer’ s hand will be sensitive to temperature variations in the girl’ s body (Young 2010, p. 28).

The writer will also be keen to observe the girls varying facial expressions after touching different parts of the body, and thus the writer will easily detect the painful body parts. Deep palpation makes use of the hand to reveal information concerning the organs and masses position and their shapes, sizes, consistency, areas of discomfort, and consistency. It will be essential in confirming the girl’ s condition in relation to UTI.   Finger pads are very essential in palpation as they help assessment of skin moisture, texture and fine tactile discrimination also referred to as light palpation (Dains et al.

2012, p. 83). The writer will then carry out the percussion test on the girl that entails striking one object against the other to cause some vibrations and hence sound. The writer will first explain to the girl that the main aim of carrying out this process is to detect normal and abnormal findings through the sounds produced (Macleod et al. 2007, p. 74). Counseling the patient before carrying out this process will be of great importance.

The thorax and the abdomen are the basic parts that will go through percussion. The percussion sounds produced is analyzed on the basis of duration, intensity, pitch, location, and quality. Intensity entails softness or loudness of the sound; quality entails the sound’ s timbre while location describes the area (Bickley et al. 2009, p. 87). Auscultation is the fourth and the final process of the physical examination that the writer will carry out on the fourteen years girl. It involves listening to the sounds that the body produces either voluntarily or involuntarily. The sounds analysis should be based on the pitch, quality, location, and relative intensity of the sound.

The writer will have to advise the girl on the auscultation process that will get carried out and on which body parts to determine infections (Cline & Stead 2007, p. 76). Conclusion The result from the physical examination will be of importance to the writer in confirming the existence of UTI. If the results from physical examination confirm to the writer that the girl was suffering from UTI necessary action would be taken. For the treatment of UTI, the writer will prescribe antibiotic medication to the girl (Hopcroft & Forte 2007, p. 97).

The writer will issue a three to five days dose of antibiotics to the fourteen years girl that will eliminate the bacteria. The taking of antibiotics reduces the period of symptoms within a day due to the suppression and consequent elimination of the bacteria. The pain during urination is therefore eliminated.

References

Brink, E. and Skott, C. (2013) Caring about symptoms in person-centered care. Open Journal of Nursing, 3, 563-567. Pp.18

Bickley, L. S., Szilagyi, P. G., & Bates, B. (2013). Bates' guide to physical examination and history-taking. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Pp.45

Bickley, L. S., Szilagyi, P. G., & Bates, B. (2009). Bates' guide to physical examination and history taking. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Pp.87

Cline, D., & Stead, L. G. (2007). Abdominal emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. Pp.76

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2012). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care. St. Louis: Mosby. Pp.83

Hopcroft, K., & Forte, V. (2007). Symptom Sorter. Oxford: Radcliffe. Pp. 97

Kauffman, M., & Roth-Kauffman, M. (2007). History and physical examination workbook: A common-sense approach. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Pp.34

Kauffman, M. (2014). History and physical examination: A common-sense approach. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Pp.76-77

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2008). Nursing. Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Pp.74

Macleod, J., Douglas, G., Nicol, E. F., & Robertson, C. (2009). Macleod's clinical examination. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. Pp.47

Torre, D. M. (2009). Kochar's clinical medicine for students. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Pp.49-50

Young, V. B. (2010). Blueprints medicine. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott William & Wilkins. Pp.25-28

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