The Prevention of Salmonella – Infections Example

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"The Prevention of Salmonella" is a useful example of a paper on infections.   Salmonella is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria are responsible for causing diseases in the digestive tracts of animals and human beings. The bacteria occurs in nature in the air, water, and soil, and is ingested through food and water infected with large concentrations of Salmonella sp. Various species of salmonella spare known o cause havoc in human health. Prominent amongst them are S. Typhi, S. enterica, and more. These species have been isolated and studied for the mechanism of growth and infection in animal bodies. Etiology The etiology and mode of infection of the pathogen have been found to be possible only after there is an ingestion of large amounts of salmonella bacteria in the body.

Small quantities of bacteria are neutralized by the gastric juices found in the stomach. It is only when a considerable amount of undigested Salmonella enter the intestines and multiply there, does the human being or the animal experience symptoms of infection. The bacteria release toxins that cause dysentery, typhoid, osteomalacia, and even anemia in the affected individuals (Medus et al, 2009, p. 85). The S.

Typhi species is known to cause typhoid in human beings and the symptoms of this infection are diarrhea, nausea, sweating, fever, and vomiting. The person experiences extreme weakness due to loss of body fluid content and dizziness. The mode of treatment involves a strong dosage of anti-bacterial medicines, usually antibiotics to flush the bacterial colonies from the system. The patient can recover in twenty-four hours if the disease is diagnosed and treated in its early stages.

In advanced stages, the patient may need four days to a couple of weeks to fight over the infection and get rid of the weakness that comes with it. Usually, the patient loses his appetite and is unable to ingest food after a series of vomiting. In such cases, intravenous administration of medicines and glucose keeps the patient’ s body in balance. Reports of Outbreaks Salmonella infections have also been reported in animals like cattle, birds, and chickens. There have been several reports of death in chickens owing to infection by S. enteric.

In the US alone, salmonellosis driven deaths have been reported in several outbreaks in humans and animals respectively, from time to time. In 2008, around 257 hospitalizations and hundreds of deaths were reported due to infection with the bacteria. The cause of infection was traced back to farms in Florida and Mexico which supplied pepper and peanut butter to the markets. The water irrigating these farms were found to have high concentrations of the bacteria, which entered the plants upon irrigation. The peanut butter produced in mills in these areas led to a multi-state breakout in 2008 (Medus et al, 2009, p. 89).

People who bought peppers from these farms ingested the bacteria with their food. In the long run, these people suffered greatly owing to the accumulation of trace amounts of bacteria in their intestines, which multiplied to create bacterial colonies and release excess amounts of toxins in the body. Precautions: Reports of Salmonella outbreak in chickens, poultry have happened in 2008, 2011 and 2014. According to researchers, the best way to fight infection is to ensure clean food and water ingestion.

Drinking boiled or purified water helps the system grow strong.   Other precautions include buying food materials that have certified food safety labels (Linam and Gerber, 2007, p. 748). Once there are symptoms of infection, the condition must be immediately treated using appropriate medical supervision and anti-bacterial medications of appropriate strength. Negligence of the symptoms can lead to severe dehydration and other side infections, which can turn fatal if neglected.

References

Linam, W. M., & Gerber, M. A. (2007). Changing epidemiology and prevention of Salmonella infections. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 26(8), pp.747-748.

Medus, et al. (2009). Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with peanut butter and peanut butter-containing products-United States, 2008-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 58(4), pp.85-90.

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