Advanced Assessment and Treatment of Trauma – Injuries&Wounds Example

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"Advanced Assessment and Treatment of Trauma" is a wonderful example of a paper on injuries and wounds.   In the arena of trauma, the history of the patient can be considered to be the episode of the impact and the energy exchange stemming from this impact. An understanding of the energy exchange process or mechanisms involved, and the principles of kinematics is essential to the successful management of trauma or injury. An understanding of these principles enhances the level of suspicion based on the pattern of injuries almost certainly associated with the survey of the scene on arrival.

The general principles and mechanisms engaged in the kinematics of trauma and the regional effects of blunt and penetrating trauma are drawn from the laws of physics governing motion and energy exchange. # 1 Newton’ s first law of motion stipulates that bodies at rest remain at rest, and bodies in motion remain in motion unless acted upon by outside forces. When a car makes an abrupt stop, the driver will not have enough time to decelerate and will continue to move at a similar speed that the car was moving at prior to its sudden stop, until some external force such as dashboard or windscreen stops it (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2010). When a vehicle hits a pole and stops, the unrestrained driver will continue in motion (moving forward), at the same rate of speed or close to the initial speed, until the anterior surface of the body strikes the steering column, windshield, or dashboard.   The impact with the objects (steering column, windshield, or dashboard) stops the forward motion of the head or torso, although the internal organs (posterior body) of the individual will continue in motion moving forward until the organs hit the inside of the chest wall, the skull, or the abdominal wall, eventually stopping the forward motion (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2008).   As a result, the internal organs will be compressed within the body.   Organ collision causes compression and stretching as the tissues and organs aggressively press against each other. As a result, the person will likely sustain compression injuries.

In case the driver strikes against the windshield due to the sudden deceleration, there may be blunt trauma characterized by fractures, soft tissue injury, head injury, cord damage, or ligamentous injuries.

Similarly, if the driver strikes the steering column, he or she may sustain torso injuries such as heart and lung damage, rib fractures, abdominal organ damage, and  significant vessel damage.   # 2 The law of conservation of energy in line with Newton’ s second law of motion outlines that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be altered in form or transferred.     Energy generated from a sudden stop (such as hitting a wall) must be converted into other energy forms such as thermal, chemical, electrical, radiant, or mechanical energy.   Energy dissipation details the process by which Kinetic energy is altered into one of the stated forms of mechanical energy. The motion of the moving vehicle is in itself a form of energy.   In order to stop the moving vehicle (in this case crashing into a wall), the mechanical energy of its motion must be transformed into another form; in this case, the energy is dispersed by bending the frame or other parts of the vehicle (National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians, 2003).   Similarly, the energy of the motion of the organs and structures within the body just as well be dissipated in order for the organs to halt their forward motion.   Injuries caused by a sudden deceleration such as a vehicle hitting a wall produce a sudden stop of the body’ s forward motion.

The energy is transferred to the vehicle or maybe transformed into tissue deformity, stretching, compression, and trauma. Decelerating forces can induce injuries such as shearing or rupturing of organs (Caroline, 1995).   The head is especially vulnerable to deceleration injuries. Conclusion The information on the suspected injuries can be effectively applied to assess the patient on the scene, besides transmitting to physicians and nurses in the emergency department.

Similarly, the knowledge can be utilized at the scene and en route to manage and avail the most appropriate patient care and “ do no further harm” to the suspected injuries.

References

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2010). Advanced assessment and treatment of trauma. London, UK: Jones and Bartlett.

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2008). Nancy Caroline’s emergency care in the streets. London, UK: Jones and Bartlett.

Caroline, N. (1995). Emergency care in the streets. New York, NY: Little Brown.

National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (U.S). (2003). PHTLS: Basic and advanced prehospital trauma life support. London, UK: Cosby.

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