"Metabolic Response to Trauma" is an interesting example of a paper on injuries and wounds. Trauma is a condition that is characterized by disturbing experiences, which occur when the body responds to serious threats, physical injuries, or shock and might result in long term neurosis. The metabolic changes noted in trauma patients who get the shock result in their survival, depending on whether their state is critical or not. Patients with trauma characterized by hypovolemic shock tended to be affected by hyperglycemia, a symptom that was evident when they were admitted to the hospital (Mieny 2003, p. 202). All the patients with this condition had normal sodium levels, which declined upon staying for certain durations in the hospital. The metabolic response in trauma caused avascular homeostasis that affected the nutritional and hormonal uprightness. This response to trauma is complex and when it is harmonic and ordered, it causes restoration of homeostasis. When the response tends to be excessive, it results in a profound imbalance in homeostasis (Fonseca 2005, p. 43). These also cause metabolic changes that lead to persisting shock and block several body organs, delaying the healing process of the patient and subsequently causing death. Trauma is noted to be the major cause of death to victims aged 45 and below, mostly from countries that are industrialized or still developing. The metabolic response to trauma can affect our body system in a way that, leads to the occurrence of abnormal menstruation cycles and ovulation in women.
These problems arise from psychological stress, which is associated with the kind of lifestyle we have. As per the neuroanatomic findings, the root of the problem is from head trauma or the effects of radiation. Trauma can also affect the metabolic response because its effects, such as the injuries and diseases, result in a rapid increase of protein in our bodies. The protein turns and leads to a break down that causes excess synthesis and in some cases; it leads to depression below the breakdown point. This occurs after a severe trauma during sepsis, which is common after moderate injuries and when malnutrition is taking place. The condition that arises from metabolic response and trauma affects the nutritional status and requirements in a way that, causes malnutrition in trauma patients.
This occurs as a result of a catabolic state that arises as a result of the response from stress and during the treatment when the patient receives inadequate attention. This eventually leads to losing body mass and improper functioning of the body, especially when the patient is undergoing surgery (Mieny 2003, p. 205). Malnourished patients are also affected in a way that they are prone to developing complications while receiving treatment such as respiratory failure, facing a hard time when it comes to the healing of wounds, pneumonia, and death. Traditionally, varieties of tests access nutritional status and always focus on measuring the body composition of the malnourished patients who are exposed to medical complication risks.
Nutritional therapy would be one of these tests. To determine how trauma affects nutritional status, patients are usually categorized into three groups; well-nourished, moderate, and those who face severe malnutrition. This helps in diagnosing them and concluding on the fate of the patient (Becker 1985, p. 54). Metabolic response to trauma may also affect the patient’ s requirements to meet the nutrition level that is required. The patient will need three sources of energy that include lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Traditionally, protein requirements are not part of the overall energy requirements. Patients with trauma are encouraged to take glucose as the main source of carbohydrate but when in excess, it increases carbon dioxide production. Lipids also provide energy but the amount needed for nutrition is not specified, although they moderate stress, it decreases infection in patients but reduces their living duration. The requirement in terms of nutrients by the patient is affected because the specific micronutrients they need is not determined.
Becker, D., 1985, Central nervous system trauma status report.Canada, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health
Fonseca, R., 2005, Oral and maxillofacial trauma, Volume 1. London, Elsevier Saunders
Mieny, C., J., 2003, Principles of Surgical Patient, Washington, New Africa Books