Metabolic Response to Trauma – Injuries&Wounds Example

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"Metabolic Response to Trauma" is an interesting example of a paper on injuries and wounds. Trauma is a condition that  is characterized by disturbing experiences,   which occur  when the body responds to serious threats,   physical  injuries, or shock and might result  in long term neurosis.   The metabolic changes noted in trauma  patients  who  get the  shock result  in  their  survival,   depending  on whether their  state is critical or not.   Patients with  trauma characterized  by hypovolemic shock  tended to be affected by hyperglycemia,   a symptom that was evident when they were admitted to the hospital  (Mieny  2003, p. 202). All the patients with this condition had normal  sodium  levels,   which declined  upon staying  for  certain durations  in the hospital.   The metabolic response in trauma  caused avascular homeostasis  that affected the nutritional and hormonal uprightness.   This response to trauma is complex and when it is harmonic and ordered, it causes restoration of homeostasis.   When the response tends to be excessive, it  results in a profound imbalance in homeostasis  (Fonseca  2005, p. 43).   These also cause  metabolic changes that  lead  to persisting shock and block several body organs, delaying the healing process of the patient  and  subsequently causing  death.     Trauma is noted to be the major cause of death  to  victims  aged 45 and below,   mostly from  countries  that are industrialized or still developing.     The metabolic response to trauma can affect our body system in a way that,   leads to  the occurrence of  abnormal menstruation cycles and ovulation  in women.

These problems arise from psychological stress,   which is associated  with  the  kind of  lifestyle  we have. As per the  neuroanatomic findings,   the root of the problem is from head trauma or  the  effects of radiation.     Trauma can also affect the metabolic response  because its effects,   such as the injuries and diseases,   result  in a rapid increase of protein in our bodies.   The protein turns  and leads  to  a  break down  that  causes  excess synthesis and in some  cases;   it  leads to  depression below the breakdown  point.   This occurs after a severe trauma during sepsis,   which is common after moderate injuries and when malnutrition is taking place. The condition that arises from metabolic response and trauma  affects the nutritional status and requirements in a way that,   causes malnutrition in trauma patients.

This occurs as a result of  a catabolic  state that arises  as a result of  the response from  stress  and during the treatment  when the patient receives inadequate attention.   This eventually leads to losing body mass and improper functioning of the body,   especially when the patient is undergoing surgery  (Mieny  2003, p. 205).     Malnourished patients are also affected in a way that they are prone to developing  complications while receiving treatment such as respiratory failure, facing a hard time when it comes to the healing of wounds, pneumonia, and death.   Traditionally,   varieties of tests access nutritional status and always focus  on measuring the body composition of the malnourished  patients who are exposed to medical complication risks.

Nutritional therapy would be  one  of  these tests.   To determine how trauma affects nutritional status, patients are usually categorized into three groups; well-nourished, moderate, and those who face severe malnutrition. This helps in diagnosing them and concluding on the fate of  the patient  (Becker  1985, p. 54).     Metabolic response to trauma may also  affect  the patient’ s requirements  to meet the nutrition level that is required.   The patient will need three sources of energy  that include lipids,   proteins, and carbohydrates.   Traditionally,   protein requirements are not part of the overall energy requirements.   Patients with trauma are encouraged to take glucose as the main source of carbohydrate  but when in excess, it increases carbon dioxide production.     Lipids also provide  energy  but the amount needed for nutrition is not specified, although they moderate stress, it decreases infection in patients  but reduces their living duration.   The  requirement in terms of nutrients by the patient is  affected because  the  specific micronutrients  they need is not determined.              

References

Becker, D., 1985, Central nervous system trauma status report.Canada, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health

Fonseca, R., 2005, Oral and maxillofacial trauma, Volume 1. London, Elsevier Saunders

Mieny, C., J., 2003, Principles of Surgical Patient, Washington, New Africa Books

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