Endometriosis: Symptoms and Treatment – Maternal Health Example

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"Endometriosis: Symptoms and Treatment" is a decent example of a paper on maternal health. Endometriosis is a condition where the affected individual has tissue that usually lines the inside of the womb or uterus starts to grow or line up outside the uterus or womb. It is a disease that usually affects women, well into their menopause, and girls even as young as eight years old. It is a hormonal imbalance that usually causes discomfort to the abdominal region of the affected person(s). This is because the tissue growing outside the uterine walls tends to act as normal tissue, but with no proper outlet, they become trapped leading to pressure on the surrounding scar tissue.

This irritation leads to adhesion, which then binds the affected abdominal organs together. Pain in the pelvic area may be the main symptom of endometriosis, where the affected individual may feel pain doing some of the basic things, for example; pain during urination, or during the menstrual cycle. This is what leads to pain or discomfort in the abdominal region. There is no known cure for the disease, but the symptoms can be alleviated through medication, and often through surgery (Bulletti et al. , 2010). Global Prevalence of the Disease There is a significant impact brought on by endometriosis.

Women who suffer from this disease suffer both psychologically and socially. There is a close connection or association between this disease and infertility, where the affected person may have difficulty in conceiving. In other instances, endometriosis can lead to ovarian cancer (Heidemann et al. , 2014). The prevalence rate of endometriosis is based on the population of a country, and that is where the extrapolation of data often comes from.

Globally, it is believed that the prevalence of endometriosis is 6-8%. Over 2 million women of childbearing age in Europe suffer from this disease. It is also believed it is responsible for the high rates of sick days, and these are reports from Australia on the prevalence of endometriosis. In Australia, it is believed that 1 in almost 10 women is affected by endometriosis, which has prompted different organizations to start campaigns to sensitize the population on what the risks are, and how to handle such complications.

More than half a million women are affected in Australia, and in Canada, the prevalence of endometriosis costs an average patient an estimated $5,200 annually. An extrapolation of this amount shows that annually, the region uses up to $1.8 billion in the surgery of endometriosis. Prevalence in the USA In current statistics, it is estimated that over 10 million women, who are in their reproductive years, are affected by or have endometriosis. It is even particularly difficult for women to have a diagnosis for this disease as it takes, on average, at least 9 years to diagnose endometriosis.

It has also been identified as the number one leading cause of infertility among the population (Barbosa et al. , 2014). 25-35% of infertile women suffer from endometriosis, while 30-40% of endometriosis victims tend to be infertile. There is not enough evidence to support this theory, but if the current trend among the different tested women is anything to go by, it is highly likely that endometriosis and infertility have close relations. An estimated 400,000 or more hysterectomies in the United States are carried out as a result of endometriosis, which should be cause for alarm. Studies might indicate, however, that women in first world countries are at a higher risk of this disease than women in developing countries.

This is because women in Western nations (or the first world), are exposed to a higher number of menstrual cycles than those in rural/remote settings. In Uganda, for instance; the prevalence of endometriosis is significantly low. This region is characterized by high fertility levels and teen pregnancies (Somigliana et al. , 2012).

It may be difficult to know the prevalence of this disease, even in America, because in order to properly ascertain that a certain number of women are afflicted, there is a need to have them undergo surgery. From the above diagnosis aspect, this may take a while as diagnosis may take up to 10 years. In other countless cases, women who have endometriosis have a family history of the disease, which may be present in the mother, aunt, or sister. It is believed that women who come from such families are six times more likely to get the disease later on in life.

In some instances, medical practitioners believe that after surgery, endometriosis may recur, unless a hysterectomy is carried out. Currently, there are no known non-invasive techniques to deal with this disease, and despite its prevalence, it is still not getting the much-needed attention (Bulletti et al. , 2010). In other instances, doctors are known to burn some lesions that appear during laparoscopy. However, burning the lesions only increases the pathology of the disease, hence; causing more pain among the affected person(s).

Unfortunately, women in the United States do not have medical cover for the various tests and treatments that help in determining their conditions. Prevalence in Florida The rate of affected individuals in Florida is not different from that of the whole nation. The only difference is that Florida is among one of the few states to recognize the impact of the disease and declare March an Endometriosis Awareness Month. In Florida, the rate of affected persons is 1 in every 10 women. Florida is keen on raising awareness on the issue of endometriosis, which has enabled it to participate in research to ensure that the disease finds non-invasive ways of being handled.

Florida has also taken the treatment of endometriosis a notch higher by having different organizations cater to the rising number of affected women. It is not clear whether the number of affected women is rising, but from current indicators, the percentage is likely to rise. According to the Endometriosis Research Center (ERC) in Florida, the prevalence rate of the disease is higher than the incidence rate. This is probably because the disease takes a long time before it can be diagnosed.

The research conducted and help provided are all aimed at ensuring the improvement of the quality of life for all affected persons in the region (Bulletti et al. , 2010).   Reasons for this topic Endometriosis is a disease that affects millions of women around the world, and the sad or unfortunate thing about it is that not many people are aware of its effects. The world needs to be educated on the social and economic effects of this disease, and in so doing, will be well aware of how to deal with the people affected.

Learning to lend support to all those affected is one way of trying to solve this problem, which has probably been around for thousands of years, but no clear path for its eradication has been formulated (Bulletti et al. , 2010). It is vital to know of the steps being taken to raise awareness about such diseases, the treatment present, and how many organizations are trying to find a solution. Conclusions from the five articles The five articles are all trying to bring out a vivid picture about endometriosis.

They tend to focus on various aspects of the disease ranging from; current ages affected by the disease to how development may impact people of different backgrounds (Mahalingaiah et al. , 2014). The studies conducted among the different cohorts are a true measure or a representation of the larger population. Due diligence was placed in the collection and analysis of data, which goes to show the lengths to which individuals would go to bring out results that aid in research.

Furthermore, the various groups chosen are from different socio-economic backgrounds, which is also an indicator that the researchers did not spare any resources in trying to find out how the disease has affected people around the world. It is also through these studies that readers can find out about the different relationships that exist between endometriosis and the environment, genetics, and fertility or infertility among women and young girls. Furthermore, it is clear from the studies conducted that endometriosis is not just for the adult generation. Pubescent girls are also reported to having pelvic pain and may sometimes record unusual menstrual cycles (Steenburg, Tanbo & Qvigstad, 2013).

By taking a look at the findings brought forth by these articles, it would be easier to address the state of endometriosis among the female population around the world, and how their situation can be salvaged to improve the quality of their lives.


Barbosa, M. A., Teixeira, D. M., Navarro, P. A., Ferriani, R. A., Nastri, C. O., & Martins, W. P. (2014). Impact of endometriosis and its staging on assisted reproduction outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol, 44(1), 261–278.

Bulletti, C., Coccia, M. E., Battistoni, S., & Borini, A. (2010). Endometriosis and infertility. J. Reprod. Genet, 27(8), 441-447.

Heidemann, L. N., Hartwell, D., Heidemann, C. H., & Jochumsen, K. M. (2014).The relation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer – a review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 93(1), 20–31.

Mahalingaiah, S., Hart, J. E., Laden, F., Aschengrau, A., & Missmer, S. A. (2014). Air pollution exposures during adulthood and risk of endometriosis in the nurses’ health study II. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(1), 58-64.

Somigliana, E., Vigano, P., Benaglia, N., Crovetto, F., Vercellini, P., & Fedele, L. (2012). Endometriosis in a rural remote setting: A cross-sectional study. Gynecological Endocrinology, 28(12), 979–982.

Steenberg, C. K., Tanbo, T. G., & Qvigstad, E. (2013). Endometriosis in adolescence: Predictive markers and management. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 92(1), 491–495.

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