High-Risk Pregnancy – Maternal Health Example

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"High-Risk Pregnancy" is a perfect example of a paper on maternal health. If the first menstrual period a female has is menarche, what is the last menstrual period a female has? Ans. : The cessation of the menstrual cycle is termed as menopause (Deecher, Andree, Sloan & Schechter, 2008). At what age does a female's last menstrual period occur? Ans. : It occurs at the end of the woman’ s reproductive period that is usually between 45 to 50 years of age. However, the age of menopause can be varied according to the cultural and biological factors of the woman.

Certain surgeries, illnesses, and hormonal medical treatments can cause menopause to occur earlier (Partridge et al. , 2007). What is the definition of the Preterm rupture of membranes? Ans. : Preterm rupture of membrane (PROM) refers to the breaking of amniotic sac before 37 weeks of gestation. The word preterm refers to them before the timing of delivery when the baby is not fully developed (NYU Langone Medical Center, n.d. ). What is the definition of premature rupture of membranes? Ans. : Premature rupture of membrane (PROM) refers to the braking of amniotic sac after 37 weeks of the gestation period or before the time of onset of labor (Jazayeri, n.d. ). In shoulder Dystocia, what is 'positive Turtle sign', and what does it possibly indicate?

Ans. : Positive turtle sign is a specific case in shoulder dystocia where after delivery of the head of the baby shoulder catches with the mother’ s pelvic/hip bones. This sign occurs at the time when the infant’ s head returns to its womb and making an infant’ s shoulder unable to see, like a turtle moving back to its shell (Birth. com. au, n.d. ). What is Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

Ans. : It is a kind of disorder at the time of pregnancy which can be characterized by nausea, vomiting, electrolyte disturbance, and weight loss (American Pregnancy Association, n.d. ). What is Climacteric? Ans. : The word Climacteric is used as a synonym for female menopause (Nlm. nih. gov, n.d. ). However, it also refers to andropause in males. It can be characterized by the termination of the ovarian function in females or the reduction of sexual activities in males. What is Pseudocyesis? Ans. : It is a medical term which refers to false pregnancy.

It refers to the conditions which have symptoms like actual pregnancy. There are some psychological and physicals issues related to false pregnancy such as nausea, weight loss, etc (Tar\'\in, Hermenegildo, Garc\'\ia-P\'erez & Cano, 2013). What is Polyhydramnios? Ans. : It is a medical condition, which refers to the condition of an excess of the amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac of the uterus (BabyCentre, n.d. ). What is an incompetence cervix? Ans. : It is a condition when weak cervical tissues that connect the lower part of the uterus and vagina started to softens, decrease in the length, and gradually open too early which can cause the mother to give birth before time (Mayoclinic. org, n.d. ). What is the puerperium?

Ans. : It is a period of six weeks to eight weeks after the childbirth when the mother’ s reproductive organs return to its normal position and started normal activity. The puerperium period is often considered to start with the successful delivery of the placenta (Patient. co. uk, n.d. ). It can have some common problems such as Perineum and Micturition. Perineum: If it is damaged then it can cause severe pain.

Infection also can be occurred. Micturition: Urine related problems such as retention for a long time or urinary incontinence can also occur. What is Amniocentesis? Ans. : It is a medical procedure that refers to a test by using an amniotic fluid sample to screen prenatal chromosomal abnormalities of the infant (Nlm. nih. gov, n.d. ).

References

American Pregnancy Association,. (n.d.). Hyperemesis Gravidarum | American Pregnancy Association. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancycomplications/hyperemesisgravidarum.html

BabyCentre,. (n.d.). Polyhydramnios. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://www.babycentre.co.uk/a551936/polyhydramnios

Birth.com.au,. (n.d.). Shoulder Dyscopia Signs. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://www.birth.com.au/shoulder-dystocia-about/possible-signs-in-labour?p=3#.U_cNT8WSyo0

Deecher, D., Andree, T., Sloan, D., & Schechter, L. (2008). From menarche to menopause: exploring the underlying biology of depression in women experiencing hormonal changes. Psychoneuroendocrinology,33(1), 3--17.

Jazayeri, A. (n.d.). Medscape: Medscape Access. Emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/261137-overview

Mayoclinic.org,. (n.d.). Incompetent cervix Definition - Diseases and Conditions - Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/incompetent-cervix/basics/definition/con-20035375

Nlm.nih.gov,. (n.d.). Amniocentesis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003921.htm

Nlm.nih.gov,. (n.d.). Climacteric. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2011/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Climacteric

NYU Langone Medical Center,. (n.d.). NYU Langone First Hospital in the U.S. With New, Ultra Low-Dose CT Imaging System. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://www.med.nyu.edu/content?ChunkIID=598936

Partridge, A., Gelber, S., Gelber, R., Castiglione-Gertsch, M., Goldhirsch, A., & Winer, E. (2007). Age of menopause among women who remain premenopausal following treatment for early breast cancer: long-term results from International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials V and VI. European Journal Of Cancer, 43(11), 1646--1653.

Patient.co.uk,. (n.d.). Postnatal Care (Puerperium) | Doctor | Patient.co.uk. Retrieved 22 August 2014, from http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/postnatal-care-puerperium

Tar\'\in, J., Hermenegildo, C., Garc\'\ia-P\'erez, M., & Cano, A. (2013). Endocrinology and physiology of pseudocyesis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 11, 39.

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