The Hormonal Influences on Breast Tissue during the Normal Menstrual Cycle – Maternal Health Example

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"The Hormonal Influences on Breast Tissue during the Normal Menstrual Cycle" is a wonderful example of a paper on maternal health. A menstrual cycle is subdivided into two phases; there is the follicular phase or proliferative phase and the luteal phase or ovulatory phase. Mitosis and apoptosis, size of the breast lobules, intraluminal section, the characteristic of the luminal cells, and intralobular stroma help to assess the breast tissue menstrual phase (Stern & McClintock, 1998). The cyclical changes of the breast tissue can be grouped as a regression phase and the proliferation phase based on the stage of these features changes.

The follicular phase or proliferation phase comprises the period when menstruation takes place and goes along with the thickening of the endometrium. In addition, the follicular phase lasts from ten to fourteen days. This is counted from the day menstruation begins. During menstruation, progesterone and estrogen levels are at their minimum. When there is a stop in bleeding, this phase starts making the endometrium develop and thicken while getting ready for pregnancy. After approximately a fortnight, there is a rise in the level of follicle-stimulating hormone.

This causes maturation of various ovarian follicles and a tripling of the size of the egg. The luteal phase lasts for about fourteen days. Luteinizing hormone makes the corpus luteum grow from the follicle that is ruptured. The corpus luteum generates progesterone. In the case of pregnancy, the progesterone and estrogen invigorate the endometrium to set up a thick layer of blood vessels, which may provide support for an egg that is fertilized (Zimecki, 2006). In this phase, there is a swift production of breast epithelial cells due to the collective impact of both progesterone and estrogen.     Question 2 It is essential to have an understanding of the hormonal changing phases when making a schedule for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).   The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging can be affected by the level of hormones (Morris, 2001).

These hormones fluctuate in level naturally every month when there is a menstrual cycle. For female individuals who have a menstrual cycle that is normal, when the level of progesterone is low, it is the most suitable period to conduct breast magnetic resonance imaging.

Ordinary development of breast tissue after different administration is uneven. This relates to the levels of estrogen that instigate breast hyperemia. This development may regulate the precision of the magnetic resonance imaging examination and could conceal little lesions for enhancement (Orel, 2000). Exogenous hormone therapies, lactation, regular changes all through the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy have an impact on the degree of development of normal breast tissues. When necessary, magnetic resonance imaging during the second week of the menstrual cycle, the follicular phase is suggested to reduce this impact.

When the levels of progesterone in the human body are high, there is a high flow of blood in the breast and the different solution is likely to accumulate all over the breast. This makes it difficult to differentiate between tissue that is normal and that which is not normal, thus making it most likely that the magnetic resonance imaging will have to be conducted again. There is evidence that enhanced levels of hormones are related to enhanced breast density.


Morris, E. A. (2001). Review of breast MRI: Indications and limitations. Semin Roentgenol, 36, 226-237.

Orel, S. G. (2000). MR imaging of the breast. Radiol Clin North America, 38, 899-913.

Stern, K., & McClintock, M. K. (1998). Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones. Nature, 392(6672), 177-179.

Zimecki, M. (2006). The lunar cycle: Effects on human and animal behavior and physiology. Postepy Hig Med Dosw, 60, 1-7.

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