Migration to Western Industrialized Countries and Perinatal Health – Maternal Health Example

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"Migration to Western Industrialized Countries and Perinatal Health" is a wonderful example of a paper on maternal health. The participants of this study will be chosen from a group of women who became infertile due to one reason or another. About 15 women who are infertile would be selected for this study. Procedure In this study, the collection of data will be obtained from secondary data. This data can be obtained from the health records of the subjects for the past decades. The health records will be analyzed on whether they became infertile due to IUDs use.

The subjects can be classified as unexposed or exposed depending on their health records. After this, a conclusion will be made concerning IUDs and infertility (Gagnon, 2009). A table with data on fertility and IUDs use will be established. Fertility will be compared with the use of IUDs. The mean, standard deviation, and the mode for the data will be established. A graph of IUDS use against the fertility level would be plotted. A graph with a positive gradient will justify the hypothesis of the study. A graph with a negative gradient will imply a rejection of the hypothesis.

The obtained results will be compared with prior studies and a conclusion will be derived on whether the use of IUDs leads to infertility. In this respect, the hypothesis for this study will be verified and either accepted or rejected. Research 2 Participants The population sample for the study was obtained out of a group of women who are currently using IUDs. These participants have not displayed any signs of infertility. About 15 participants for this study will be selected. Procedure All subjects will be given oral and written explanations on infertility and IUDs.

The subjects were then given response booklets with highlighted questions on IUDs use that needed to be answered. They will be asked to give a brief explanation of whatever transpired when they started to use IUDs. A questionnaire will be provided to the participants. The subjects would be asked to answer all the questions in the questionnaire. After completion of the test, the response booklets having all responses will be collected for analysis (Gupton, 2009). In this study, the procedure of data collection and questions will be designed keenly so as to get the appropriate information regarding the exposure before the development of the disease in the participants.

After collection of the baseline information, the subjects will be followed longitudinally for a period of a year. This will help the researcher to determine when and if the participant will develop infertility with continuous exposure. After this, the hypothesis would either be accepted or rejected depending on the outcome of the research. Strength and Weakness of Retrospective and Prospective Designs The strength of the retrospective design is that the collection of data is fast and takes place for a short duration of time whereas the strength of the prospective design is that the collected data is first-hand rather than the biased second-hand data in retrospective.

The weakness of the retrospective design is that the data collected is second-hand and may be biased, or the opinion of an individual which lacks internal validity. In many cases, the data presented under the secondary data collection cannot be trusted as reliable and valid because they will not have any empirical backing.

The weakness of a prospective design is that the process is time-consuming. Reliability and Validity The measurement of reliability and validity of the research cannot be underestimated in any way. As a survey, it is the level of reliability and validity that will give the research the needed credibility for its findings to be generalized (Bowling, 2007). Due to this, there are several factors to be put in place to ensure that the results are highly reliable and valid. Some of the factors include the selection approach used in selecting secondary sources of data for research.

In the absence of such a selection mechanism, the data presented under the secondary data collection cannot be trusted as reliable and valid because they will not have any empirical backing. Another factor has to do with the use of the random sampling technique to select members in the sample size. With that technique, the implication is that the researcher shall have no control whatsoever over the results. Even more, is the extensive reliance on a quantitative data analysis method. With the quantitative data analysis, figures and values will be displayed for all people concerned to have their own calculations to check the accuracy of results.

Finally, the research is based on a compromise of ethical standards such as the confidentiality of respondents. This means that there will not be any legal issues to litigate the research findings. In some cases, legal litigations lead to the withdrawal of certain components of data, rendering the whole research conclusion compromised and academically paralyzed. Conclusion Study designs provide direction to research while at the same time systemizing it.

Research design in this context is essentially the protocol through which the study is carried out. Research designs differ by characteristics, with each design having its merits and demerits. The design that a researcher chooses directly or indirectly affects the results at the end of it all and also translates to the conclusion to be reached, as well as the final findings. More often than not, scientists are always interested in getting results that are reliable because such results would help understand the phenomenon under investigation.

There are several types of studies for research designs. They fall into two main categories. They are experimental and observational study designs depending on the exposure assignment. Experimental research designs are used when the researcher that is conducting the study does assign exposure to the participants of the study. For the experimental study, should the exposure be assigned in a random manner, the study type becomes a randomized controlled trial. The observational research study occurs when the exposure status is not assigned. In this case, the investigator measures and observes the exposures already occurring.

In the observational studies – in case the comparison group is not there – the study design becomes descriptive, but if the comparison group is there, the study design is called an analytic study. Observational studies are further categorized into three study designs. They are case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies. A cohort study is a study design in which the population is described by the exposure status with the determination of the outcome. A case-control study is a study design in which the population is described by the disease status or outcome status with the exposures being determined.

Finally, the cross-sectional study is a study design in which both the outcome and the exposure status are determined at the same time. The type of research design to be employed will apply a prospective randomized controlled study as a research design. This study is quite appropriate given that the design is a scientific experiment in nature. Therefore, it is appropriate to use this study design to test the efficacy of a type of intervention within the population of patients. This study design helps provide opportunities to collect useful information concerning the adverse effects.

It is also worthwhile to mention that this study design has an advantage of properly randomizing, which ends up minimizing the allocation bias, hence balancing the unknown and known prognostic factors. Research has shown that this study design is the most appropriate for conducting any scientific study. However, this method is time-consuming and quite expensive.


Bowling, A. (2007). Research methods in health – investigating health and health services open. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gagnon, J. (2009). Migration to Western industrialized countries and perinatal health: A systematic review. Social Science and Medicine, 69, 934-946.

Gupton, A. (2009). Psychometric testing of the perception of pregnancy risk questionnaire. Research in Nursing and Health, 32, 493-503.

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