Causes, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Obesity – Metabolic Problems Example

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"Causes, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Obesity"  is a good example of a paper on metabolic problems. Within the scenario of world nations, obesity is an important problem because the same curbs the productivity of citizens and hinder them from functioning properly. Not only the developed nations face the problem of obesity, but also the underdeveloped nations face the same in general. So, one can see that obesity is a universal problem leading human beings towards related deceases and problems. One can see that obesity is interconnected with the change in food habits, hereditary factors, and certain illnesses.

Even the underdeveloped nations are facing the problem of obesity, and it is symbolic of its seriousness as a global problem faced by human beings. Thesis statement: The causes behind obesity include improper diet, change in lifestyle, and illness, its pathophysiology is related to genetic factors and hormonal imbalance, and treatment includes control in food consumption, exercise, and surgery.   This section is broadly divided as Causes, Pathophysiology, and Treatment (management). Causes One can see that there are so many causes for widespread obesity. Brewis (2011) stated that “ The World Health Organization identified obesity as a major public health problem only in 1997” (p. 3).

For instance, the end result of an improper diet is obesity and related problems. Similarly, energy supply related to food items underwent a rapid change because modern societies discard traditional food items. Besides, people consume food items with high-calorie content. For instance, regular exposure to advertisements on fast food items eventually leads the viewers towards fast food within high-calorie content. Within this scenario, people who consume food items with high-calorie content will be forced to be under the influence of obesity.                         From a different angle of view, the change in lifestyle-especially related to modernity-plays an influential role in trapping human beings within the influence of obesity.

Zhao (2008) Zhao (2008) said that “ Lakdawalla and Philipson (2002) argue that the relative price of caloric consumption has fallen over time contributing to the obesity epidemic in the United States” (p. 59). Nowadays, people are fond of jobs with less physical activity. For instance, those who work in the IT sector provides less importance to exercise because they have less time to get involved in the same.

On the other side, they consume food items with high caloric value. This sort of food consumption (say, with high calorific value) and less physical workout can force them to be victims of obesity. One can see that those who are under medical treatment show the tendency to consume more food. Das (2010) stated that “ Obesity is one of the main components of the metabolic syndrome” (p. 43). This may lead to eating disorders because they do not know the problems related to the uncontrollable consumption of food items in general.

Besides, the usage of certain medicines can result in gaining weight without consuming more than enough food.   Pathophysiology                       One can see that certain malfunctions of pathophysiological mechanisms within the human body can result in obesity. Those who face pathophysiological malfunctioning can be the victims of obesity and related health problems. To be specific, the gene named Leptin is one of the factors behind pathophysiological malfunctioning within the human body. For instance, a mutation within Leptin can result in health problems related to obesity.

One can see that the presence of Leptin is an influential factor that helps human beings to sense and control hunger.   For instance, this gene’ s influence over the human nervous system determines human control over appetite. Similarly, the presence of ghrelin within the human body can deeply influence one’ s food intake because the same can control appetite. Besides, hormonal imbalance is another problem resulting in uncontrollable appetite and related obesity in general. Lustig (2011) stated that “ First, if the obesity is associated with any obvious clinical findings such as mental retardation, developmental delay, dysmorphic faces, or organ-specific defects, of structure or function, then an evaluation for syndromic causes of the obesity should be pursued” (p. 64).

To be specific, some hormones produced in the human body can stimulate the hypothalamus and this can determine an individual’ s food intake. So, it is evident that genes and hormones can deeply influence an individual’ s food intake and related obesity. Treatment (management)                       The best possible way to deal with the problem of obesity is to control one’ s food consumption. This is important because dieting can force the human body to consume fat and to limit the accumulation of the same.

Aiyana (2007) stated that “ Evidence shows that the most effective treatment for overweight and obesity are a combination of dietary change (to lower calorie and lower fat diets), changes in exercise behavior patterns, and overall behavior change therapy, or, as we practitioners of Chinese medicine would say, lifestyle changes” (p. 4-5). When an individual takes control over his/her regular food intake, there is less scope for fat deposit. Similarly, regular exercise can burn human fat and can result in the proper functioning of organs as a single whole.

So, it is important for an obese person to take control of his/her food consumption and must undergo regular exercise. If the aforementioned ideas prove to fail, surgery can help an obese individual to keep himself/herself away from the clutches of obesity. Still, surgery is not ideal for those who are less obese because the same is with a complication in general. If one’ s obesity is unmanageable, surgery is necessary to rectify it. In short, the influence of obesity can be limited by adopting different techniques, but an obese person must realize that obesity can result in unimaginable health problems.                         Summing, some people consider obesity as less serious health status and some others consider it as an incurable disease.

One can see that truth is in between the aforementioned observations because obesity can be a less serious illness and an incurable disease. If one is ready to change one’ s lifestyle, it is very easy to keep oneself away from obesity. Besides, hereditary factors and hormonal imbalance can result in obesity among human beings.

Still, obesity can be rectified with the help of certain innovative ideas like limiting one’ s food consumption, proper exercise, and in the end, surgery. In short, it is important to consider obesity as a noticeable change in one’ s health status because it is a lifestyle disease.  


Aiyana J. (2007). Chinese Medicine & Healthy Weight Management: An Evidence-based Integrated Approach. Boulder, C.O: Blue Poppy Enterprises.

Brewis, A.A. (2011). Obesity: Cultural and Biocultural Perspectives. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Das, U.N. Metabolic Syndrome Pathophysiology: The Role of Essential Fatty Acids. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Lustig, R.H. (2011). Obesity Before Birth: Maternal and prenatal influences on the offspring. San Francisco, CA: Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.

Zhao, Z. (2008). Neighborhood Effects on Obesity. Chicago, IL: ProQuest, 2008.

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