"Living with Metabolic Syndrome" is a great example of a paper on metabolic problems. The term Metabolic Syndrome applies to the clustering of various risk factors in an individual that is usually associated with obesity and increase the risk of atherosclerotic heart disease and insulin resistance or type 2 Diabetes. It is important to recognize that metabolic syndrome involves both cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors and its management should focus on reducing the risk for both simultaneously. As the name suggests, the risk factors originate from metabolic pathogenesis. They include atherogenic dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, high levels of blood glucose, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state (Grundy, 2006).
Pathogenesis of metabolic risk factors cannot be pointed out towards one single factor rather it is multifactorial, however, obesity and insulin resistance can be highlighted as the major underlying risk factors. The incidence of metabolic syndrome is increasing not only in developed countries but also in developing countries, and the affected individuals are exposed to both dangerous risk factors and burdensome financial health costs. Obesity is a major driving force of metabolic syndrome and hence it cannot be separated from metabolic syndrome epidemiology.
About 30 percent of the United States adults are overweight and 32 percent are obese. Among the obese, 5 percent of them are extremely obese with a BMI of more than 30kg/m2. Over the years the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome is increasing. Approximately 50 million people in the United States had Metabolic Syndrome in 1990 (Grundy, 2008). It has been estimated that the syndrome is more common in black women than in black men. Among the ethnic groups, the highest incidence was found to be among the Hispanics from 1988 to 1994.
An important concern is a rising prevalence in the US adolescent population. Among the adolescents, the rate is increasing from 30percent to 50 percent which is an alarming estimate. Even in developing countries such as India, the prevalence has been found to increase (Grundy, 2008). According to the statistics, the incidence of metabolic syndrome has increased because of the increase in consumption of junk food, sedentary lifestyles, and the incidence of stress. According to World Health Organization, 300 million people worldwide are classified as obese.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 47 million Americans have metabolic syndrome. The high incidence of type 2 diabetes can also be directly linked to metabolic syndrome. One million Americans are diagnosed each year with Type 2 Diabetes and a proportion of more than one-third of Americans are diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (Sawyer, 2010). Another important consideration in living with metabolic syndrome is the high financial costs. Metabolic syndrome patient care requires a great amount of money, human potential, suffering and according to experts, the resources have been unsurpassed in human history.
The financial burdens for managing the health conditions especially type 2 diabetes is very high. Average annual treatment costs have risen from $ 1299 to $1714 according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The care for metabolic patients requires not just the management of the current metabolic derangements but also the complications that might arise from the syndrome. Type 2 Diabetes is a significant risk factor and according to estimates the overall care for patients with diabetes is average at more than $10,000 (Sawyer, 2010). Living with metabolic syndrome is a constant struggle for the affected individuals because they are not only exposed to fatal complications such as high blood pressure, atherogenic clots in blood vessels, heart attacks, diabetes mellitus, and its complications such as renal failure, sexual dysfunction, and cardiovascular problems.
On top of that, the overall care is also very expensive and lengthy which requires patience and consistency. It is better to counsel the current population to prevent the risk factors rather than living with them.
Grundy, S. M. (2006). Metabolic Syndrome: Connecting and Reconciling cardiovascular and diabetes worlds. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 47, 6 1093-1100.
Grundy, S. M. (2008). Metabolic Syndrome Pandemic. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 28, 4, 629-36.
Sawyer, A. (2010, October 26). Calculating the price of metabolic Heallth. Examiner. Retireved from < http://www.examiner.com/article/calculating-the-price-of-metabolic-health>