Risk Factors of Osteoporosis – Musculoskeletal System Example

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"Risk Factors of Osteoporosis" is a brilliant example of a paper on the musculoskeletal system. A study conducted by Stevens & Rudd (2013) revealed that in the United Kingdom alone, approximately three million people suffer from Osteoporosis while eight million women and one million women were afflicted with the disease in America in 2010. As such, Osteoporosis is a serious ailment globally. On a global level, Osteoporosis affects approximately 15% of the white population aged around 5o years while 70% of those over 80 years suffer from it. It is vital to note that the disease is more prevalent among women than it is in men.

Osteoporosis can be basically defined as the thinning of bones which subsequently leads to weak bones hence increasing the risk of an individual suffering from a broken bone. An individual is said to suffer from Osteoporosis if his/her bone density is found to be 2.5 standard deviations below the bone density of a young adult. In fact, Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones is the main cause of broken bones among the old people or generation.

The commonly affected bones by Osteoporosis are the hip, forearm, and backbones. Normally, Osteoporosis occurs without any warning or symptoms and thus it is only diagnosed when the bone has broken/ fractured. An individual suffering from the disease experiences broken bones or fractures even when minor falls occur. After experiencing a broken bone, an individual should expect to be unable to do activities he/she normally used to do. Also, chronic pain occurs after a broken bone. Causes/ risk factors of Osteoporosis As a person gets older with time, the body’ s ability to grow and repair its bones quickly slows down.

A normal person’ s bones cease to grow in length when he/she attains the age of sixteen to eighteen. Moreover, bone density continues to increase up to an individual’ s late twenties. However, bone density commences decreasing when individuals attain the age of thirty-five years. Thus, aging is a major risk factor for Osteoporosis. Although aging is a normal process, it often leads to increased risks of bone fractures and Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis often leads to fractures characterized by chronic pain. Some of the risk factors for the disease include being female, aging, menopause, low body weight, some medications which lead to bone loss such as chemotherapy, steroids, and antiseizure medications. , heavy smoking or drinking, inflammatory conditions like Crohn’ s disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

Additionally, a family history of hip fractures can increase the risk of Osteoporosis. Further, the lack of enough exercise can lead to Osteoporosis (Al-Ani et al. , 2011). T score According to Schwartz et al (2011), the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA test) is used to determine an individual’ s bone health. The test measures a person’ s bone density at both the spine and hip.

A T score is then given when the DXA test results have been compared to the normal mineral density of a young adult. The more negative the numbers are, the higher the risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture is. In light of this, a normal T score for a healthy person is between +1 and -1. A score ranging between -1 and -2.5 implies that although the bone density is low, the individual is Osteoporosis free. However, a score of -2.5 and lower signifies that the individual has Osteoporosis.

The more negative the number is, the more severe and serious the case of Osteoporosis is. Treating the disease Osteoporosis treatment is basically based on preventing and treating bone fractures. Also, there is medication to strengthen the weak bones. As such, vitamin D and calcium aided by exercise are recommended (Mata-Granados et al. , 2013). Prevention measures against Osteoporosis include an effort to steer away from drugs/medicines that increase the chances of the disease. Furthermore, a proper and healthy diet at an early age acts as a prevention strategy.

For those suffering from the disease, good and consistent exercise, a good diet, and steps to prevent instances of falls are the recommended strategies or steps.  


Al-Ani, A. N., Neander, G., Samuelsson, B., Blomfeldt, R., Ekström, W., & Hedström, M. (2013). Risk factors for osteoporosis are common in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fractures regardless of trauma mechanism. Acta orthopaedica, 84(1), 54-59.

Mata-Granados, J. M., Cuenca-Acevedo, J. R., de Castro, M. L., Holick, M. F., & Quesada-Gómez, J. M. (2013). Vitamin D insufficiency together with high serum levels of vitamin A increases the risk for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Archives of osteoporosis, 8(1-2), 1-8.

Schwartz, A. V., Vittinghoff, E., Bauer, D. C., Hillier, T. A., Strotmeyer, E. S., Ensrud, K. E., ... & Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF. (2011). Association of BMD and FRAX score with risk of fracture in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Jama, 305(21), 2184-2192.

Stevens, J. A., & Rudd, R. A. (2013). The impact of decreasing US hip fracture rates on future hip fracture estimates. Osteoporosis International, 24(10), 2725-2728.

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