A Rare and Unidentified Disease of the Central Nervous System – Neurology Example

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"A Rare and Unidentified Disease of the Central Nervous System" is a brilliant example of a paper on neurology. A rare and unidentified disease of the central nervous system has been discovered and the symptoms differ from the usual central nervous disorders. This research proposal is aimed at establishing such rare diseases, the processes involved in their therapy, and the extent of the spread of these conditions (Bien, et al. , 2005). Hypothesis If MRI confirmed the absence of tumors in the brain and spinal cord better than other neuroimaging techniques The national database consists of more common brain diseases than rare brain diseases If common symptoms of rare diseases are common with usual common brain disorders The number of successful brain donors is less than the unsuccessful Methods used to test for pathophysiologic processes for a donated brain   Brain diseases more common in the last nine months than they were a year ago Experimental aims Some of the rare brain diseases.

The average percentage of the commonness of successful brain donations. The basic pathophysiological process involves using different experimental techniques and approaches. The different neuroimaging techniques Background information Apraxia is a cognitive-motor disorder that affects the performance of learned, skilled movements (Heilman, et al. , 1982).

Visual disturbance impairs the ability of the patient to see properly hence impaired vision. Dyslalia is the impairment in speech organs due to a lack of or unsatisfactory transfer of the nerves to the articulation organs (Wolf, 1935). Dyssnergia is the lack of coordination in movements’ hence abrupt movements due to interferences in the co-ordination of the smooth muscle.   Kluver-Bucy syndrome is a neurological disorder that affects the anterior temporal lobes of the brain. Patients with this disorder may experience memory loss, seizures, lack of feelings.

Simian B virus infection which is caused by a type of herpes causes the inflammation of the brain and its membranes. It also affects the spinal cord (Lilly, et al. , 1983). Brain imaging techniques allow doctors to check the activity or glitches in the donated brain before implanting it on the patient, without surgery. There are several accepted techniques in research facilities and hospitals. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging,     it is used to check brain activity and can also be used to show maps that show specific parts of the brain involved in mental processes (Le, et al. , 1995).

Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning shows the complete image of the brain based on the x-rays absorption spectrum on the brain (Ron, 1983). CT    shows the overall image of the brain feature. Positron Emission Photography (PET) uses little amounts of radioactive material that shows again the functional brain processes (Petersen, et al. , 1988). Electroencephalography (EEG) is a technique used to measure the electrical activity of the brain (Duffy, et al. , 1989). Other neuroimaging techniques include magnetoencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy (Belanger, et al. , 2007).

The researchers have to use these techniques on the donated brain to ascertain its safety, such as electric activity and the mental processes before accepting to implant it on the recipient. After autopsy parts of the brain are frozen, the parts are treated with fixatives and then preserved, this ensures that the brain tissue   (fletcher & Hungerford, 1973)                                                                        Methodology For this research proposal, I chose a qualitative approach to collect data as this is the most effective, inexpensive and time-efficient method of data collection (Patton & Quinn, 2005) Questionnaires In this experiment, a number of people in different regions are given a form with questions concerning rare disease disorders (Sandelowski, 2000).

The response is individual and the questions should be designed to suit the experimental aims. The questionnaires are distributed to medical practitioners who treat brain diseases and those who rarely do. The control for this experiment will be people with no brain disorders and the expected outcome will be the frequency of patients with brain diseases. The timeline for this project is about three months and few resources are required as it is just paper and a field person to distribute the question forms.

Once the forms are returned back the analysis of the answered questions by the different people begins and is classified according to the outcomes put forward. This method is cheap and reliable as individuals are not influenced by anything to answer questions. However these methods are just for the literate, it cannot be administered on uneducated respondents Interviews Involves asking questions with the researchers and respondents either in groups or personally. It is more costly than questionnaires but they are effective for complex questions and less involving activities.

Researchers design questions based on the hypothesis. Interviews can either be open-ended or structured. Open-ended interviews include interviewing focus groups or doing panel surveys. Depending on the extensiveness of the respondents this method can take up to a month or two. The people interviewed include medical practitioners, neurosurgeons, patients with different symptoms of brain diseases, and the other individuals in the public domain. The control for this experiment will be people who were interviewed and have little or no knowledge of brain diseases. Direct observations   Different people observe the patterns of rare diseases in the national database for the last year and the most recent months.

They also observe different treatment methods and the therapies administered in brain conditions (Leshner, 1997). The different pathophysiological processes followed and the imaging techniques involved in brain screening. Decisions on the extent of data collection are dictated by the researchers. The control of this experiment is basically by comparing results with interviews and questionnaires. This observation takes up to nine months so as to obtain a regular pattern and come up with accurate decisions. Results. Data collected from the research are grouped based on different variables set out by the researchers.

It is represented graphically and documented forms  (brewer & A, 1999). Databases may be created for later analysis too. The controls are analyzed too and this helps in assessing the intensity and accuracy of data collected. Expected outcome s are the answers to the experimental aims of this proposal that should be documented appropriately.     Discussion Expound on the relevant results obtained from the data collection techniques.

This includes making decisions based on the hypothesis and the data collected. For example, one may be able to conclude on the pathophysiological processes involved, the most effective therapy on brain diseases, and the extent of people affected by such diseases (Moens, et al. , 2005).    

References

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Bien , C. G. et al., 2005. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Rasmussen Encephalis. A European Consesus Statement, 128(3), pp. 454-471.

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Duffy, F. H., Vasudera, G. L. & Surwillo, W. W., 1989. Clinical Electroencephalography and Topographic Brain mapping: Technology and practice.

fletcher & hungerford, g., 1973. textbook of radiotherapy. 1st ed. s.l.:lea & febigier.

Heilman, K. M., Rothi, L. J. & Valenstein, E., 1982. Two Forms of Ideomotor Apraxia. neurology, 32(4), pp. 342-342.

Le, B. et al., 1995. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain. Annals of Internal Medicine, 122(4), pp. 296-303.

Leshner, A. L., 1997. brain disease andit matters. In: s.l.:s.n., pp. 45-47.

Lilly, R., Cummings, J. L., Frankel, M. & Benson, F., 1983. The Human Kluver-Bucy Syndrome. Neurology, 33(9), pp. 1141-1141.

Moens, A. L., Claeys, M. J. & Vrints, C. J., 2005. myocardial ischemia/ reperfusion-injury, a clinical view on a complex pathophysiological process. Journal of Cardiology, 100(2), pp. 179-190.

patton & Quinn, M., 2005. qualitative research. 2nd ed. s.l.:john wiley & sons ltd.

Petersen, S. E. et al., 1988. Positron Emission Tomographic Studies of the Cortical Anatomy of single-word processing. nature, pp. 585-589.

Ron, M. A., 1983. The Alcoholic Brain: CT Scan and Physiological findings. physiological medicine. .

Sandelowski, M., 2000. Focus on Research methods- Whatever happened to Qualitative description?.. research in nursing health, 23(4), pp. 334-340.

Wolf, L. J., 1935. Etiology of Dyslalia. Journal of Nervous and Mental diseases, 81(1), p. 82.

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