"Diagnostic Criteria for Multiple Sclerosis" is a wonderful example of a paper on neurology. The symptoms presented by the patient point to several diseases. First, the numbness present in her hands and weakness of legs may be a sign of peripheral neuropathy. Her urinary incontinence also suggests the same condition. Peripheral neuropathy is usually caused by an underlying illness. Therefore, a medical history will be needed to confirm the case. Frequent headaches may also suggest chronic sleep disorder. Chronic sleep disorder is commonly associated with headaches. Night headaches may cause sleep deprivation, which then worsens the headaches.
Her condition may also suggest hemiplegic migraine headaches. This condition is hereditary and is characterized by very painful migraines and paralysis in the arms and legs. It is caused by a genetic disorder involving three genes; thus a specific protein essential for nervous communication is not manufactured. However, to confirm any of these conditions, additional investigated is required. Review of system To get a clear picture of the patient’ s illness, I would ask more about her medical history. It is important to acquire this kind of information so that one disease can be identified and treated.
Further results from other health departments such as the medical laboratory would also help to identify the specific health problem of this patient. I would ask if there are any immediate family members who experience the same symptoms to rule out any hereditary diseases. Then I would question if she has experienced the symptoms earlier in life since it may be a misdiagnosis in the past. It would also be important to enquire if she experiences these symptoms concurrently since she might be having multiple diseases with the different symptoms; as the symptoms point to a nervous system dysfunction. Primary diagnosis These symptoms are linked to the nervous system.
Therefore, the condition must be a nervous system disorder. Multiple sclerosis presents similar symptoms to the condition of the patient and can be concluded to be the primary diagnosis. Neurologic symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis as a result of the damage to the nervous system associated with the disease (Frohman et al. , 2011). They include bladder incontinence and weakness in the limbs among others. Further diagnostic workup needed To confirm multiple sclerosis, a further diagnostic workup is needed, including an MRI scan to identify if there are any inflamed parts of the brain stem, spinal cord or brain that may indicate multiple sclerosis.
Also, the patient will be required to have her cerebrospinal fluid tested for underlying indicators (Polman et al. , 2011). Medication Treatment of multiple sclerosis is aimed at shortening the period of acute exacerbations, reducing their frequency of occurrence and providing relief from symptoms (Goldenberg, 2012). There are eight FDA-approved drugs for treating multiple sclerosis.
For this patient, an intramuscular shot of 30mcg of interferon beta-1a (Avonex) given once every week would help relieve her symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Referrals To achieve the best results of treatment, the patient may also need to be other forms of therapy such as counselling since she has been newly diagnosed. Conservative measures The patient should be advised to refrain from drugs that may exacerbate the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. These include any drugs that affect the central nervous system. Patient Education The patient should be educated about multiple sclerosis so that she may know how to deal with the condition and also what to expect (Kieseier & Stuve, 2011).
Any side effects of the drugs should also be communicated to her. Follow-up plan Interferon-beta-1a drugs are known to cause liver damage. Thus, the patient should be followed up for any drug complications.
Frohman, T. C., Castro, W., Shah, A., Courtney, A., Ortstadt, J., Davis, S. L., ... & Frohman, E. M. (2011). Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis. Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders, 1756285611400658.
Goldenberg, M. M. (2012). Multiple sclerosis review. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 37(3), 175.
Kieseier, B. C., & Stüve, O. (2011). A critical appraisal of treatment decisions in multiple sclerosis—old versus new. Nature Reviews Neurology, 7(5), 255-262.
Polman, C. H., Reingold, S. C., Banwell, B., Clanet, M., Cohen, J. A., Filippi, M.,&Wolinsky, J. S. (2011). Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Annals of neurology, 69(2), 292-302.