The paper 'Cancer Prevalence and Dietary Intake, Minerals, Fats and Vitamins' is a perfect example of outcomes research Study1 The first study was conducted between the years 1998-2005. The participants for the experiment was carried on a total of 1470 individuals consisting of two groups one on placebo and another on active treatment. These groups consisted of a yearly follow-up, calendar packs mailed monthly to the people participating in the experiment, questionnaires and checkups were done to monitor the progress of the experiments. The experiment could have been biased in the sense that the questionnaires were sent directly to the respondents who could have at times given false information on the intake of these components, intake of drugs and others could have faked their actual age (Song, et al, 2012).
Some could have taken folate drugs in excess and this could have manipulated the results expected. The errors that occurred resulted from lack of screening of the participants before the experiment was started. This could have consisted of the women who had suffered from colorectal adenomas yet they could have been included in the experiment (Olson, 2006).
The lifestyle of some participants could have effects on the results because some consumed things were prohibited in the experiments and others may have exempted themselves from taking the right foods. Lastly, the measurement errors for the active and the placebo participants on the homocysteine and the medium plasma palate could have influenced the results concluded (Song et al, 2012). Study 2 The study was conducted on people to investigate the relationship between the depletion of folate and the growth of rectal and colon cancer on a total of 428 for colon and 372 for rectal cancer cases.
The results showed that folate did not lead to the growth of rectal cancer in people. There was a connection in increased folate intake in those with higher alcohol intake and the vice versa. The results from the study could have been biased due to wrong information given by the participants. Some of the participants could have hidden basic information needed to analyze the information (Freudenheim et al, 1991). Study 3 This study was to investigate if the risk of colorectal cancer would be influenced by the intake of crucial fatty acids, vitamins and minerals.
The study was conducted in the United Kingdom using data from seven dietary diaries. The study was carried out on 1951 people as a match to the 565 patients of colorectal cancer (Key et al, 2012). The study was mainly divided among people based on their age, sex, weight, recruitment date and height. Some of the minerals and vitamins tested on people were: vitamin B6, vitamin B12, riboflavin, folate, magnesium, fatty acids, potassium and iron. These minerals, fats and vitamins were tested using a regression model adjusted to the real age, alcohol intake, education, the level of energy, fibre intake and smoking. The conclusion that there was no significant correlation between cancer prevalence and dietary intake, minerals, fats and vitamins.
This study could have been biased in the case that the participants could have lied about their true age and other issues like the intake of alcohol and smoking. The errors from the statistical data could also have led to a wrong conclusion on the experiment (Key et al, 2012).
Freudenheim, J. et al. (1991). Folate Intake and Carcinogenesis of the Colon and Rectum. International Journal of Epidemiology.
Key, T. et al. (2012). Vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in the United Kingdom Dietary Cohort Consortium. International Journal of Cancer.
Olson, K. (2006). Survey Participation, Nonresponse Bias, Measurement Error Bias, and Total Bias. Public Opinion Quarterly.
Song, Y. et al. (2012). Acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Colorectal Adenoma. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute.