Links between Economy and Medicine – Poisoning, Toxicology&Environmental Health Example

Download free paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

"Links between Economy and Medicine" is an impressive example of a paper on poisoning, toxicology and environmental health. The article reported by Blanchard, 2013 relates to an assertion that there exists a link between autism and certain toxic metals. Within the article, Blanchard, 2013 discusses the notion that there exists a scientific connection between children suffering from autism and metals including cadmium, tin, thallium, lead, and tungsten. It is imperative to understand that Blanchard, 2013 research relies on reported scientific research engaged from various unanimous sources. Findings                       Blanchard, 2013 reports a positive correlation between the presence of specific toxic metals in the bloodstream of children and autism.

She reports that autism has a direct connection with infants who tend to play with specific heavy metals mainly as toys. Blanchard, 2013 also reports that the heavy toxic metals within the bloodstream of children between the age of 5 and 16 directly correlates with autism problem. Blanchard, 2013 further asserts that children exposed to even minimal levels of lead metal would suffer from impairment of intellectual development. Implications                       Blanchard, 2013 reports that the high levels of lead, thallium, tungsten, tin, and lead in the bloodstream of children between the age of five and sixteen implicates relation to autism.

Blanchard, 2013 advises that the aforementioned implications require complete isolation of children from access to known heavy metals. Importance                       According to Blanchard, 2013 the correlation between is imperative in enabling continued research on the potential treatment that would eliminate heavy metals from the children body system. Consequently, there would exist an amicable solution to the autism problem. Moreover, Blanchard, 2013 states that the findings linking autism to heavy metals would assist parents in preventing autism-related issues in society. Critique of the article causal claim Lack of vivid correlation and presentation of results                       Notably, there exist elements of reverse causality within the report presented by Blanchard, 2013.

The report has a reversed cause and effect concept especially on the representation and presentation of the topic. Blanchard, 2013 argues that autism results from the existence of specific heavy metals within the infant body. Blanchard, 2013 presents the problem in such a manner that depicts a correlation between increased autism and heavy metals levels within the body system.                       The article depicts a reversed cause and effect based on the topic in relation to autism.

In essence, increased concentration of toxic heavy metals in the body of infants directly causes autism effects. It is imperative to understand that the correlation that exists between toxic heavy metals and autism remains directly dependent on the level of exposure to the aforementioned metals. Consequently, as the concentration of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, or chromium that remains toxic increases within the body systems, an example of a negative effect would be autism.

It is important to restate that increasing concentration of heavy metals within the body system on infants directly contributes to autism and not the exact causal reverse (Mankiw 47). Science research design                       Observably, the article lacks the inherent qualities of an effective science report. Blanchard, 2013 reports many study research findings of different autism cases that directly remains accessible for interpretation. However, Blanchard, 2013 fails to establish the professional standards of writing causality claim besides violating the inherent properties of an effective scientific research article.                       For instance, Blanchard, 2013 does not provide an introductory section of a scientific report that directly aims at explaining the causality of factors involved in the research.

Lack of introduction to the article results in an inability to elaborate on the inherent relationship between autism and toxic metals research. It is imperative to understand that lack of introductory information on autism and heavy metals connection with degenerative effects on the human brain development.                       The article also fails to explain elaborately the reported scientific correlation between autism and heavy metals.

Blanchard, 2013 ought to have included the results of research obtained from the studies in reference within the article including the journal for biological elements research. Realistically, lack of comprehensive description of results of the previous studies coupled with the absence of vivid correlation between certain heavy metals and autism contributes to the inability of the article and its failure in ensuring correctness of causality. Blanchard, 2013 also fails in dealing with causality correctly mainly due to a lack of methodology used in establishing the claims. It is indispensable to understand that the article reports existing scientific research that would directly require a comprehensive understanding and description of methodology and techniques used in acquiring preliminary data.

Methodology forms an imperative part of the research and its omission directly results in the questioning of the validity of the established correlation between autism and heavy metals. Therefore, Blanchard, 2013 ought to have clarified within the report, the methods that the various researchers who conducted the presented a connection between autism and heavy metals. Description of the methodology used would be authoritative in establishing a vivid relationship between heavy metals and autism. Example of study that indicates how to causality may fail                       Causality has often failed in research on epidemiological studies relating to hormone replacement therapy and cases of coronary heart disease.

Certain research established that in a normal medical situation, hormone replacement therapy in women would have direct benefits on their health by acting as protection against coronary heart disease. However, comprehensive studies based on a factual study design that employs the use of a randomized control trial established that hormone replacement therapy caused a significant increase in coronary heart disease amongst women.   Proposed Redesign of the study                       In establishing the effect of the increase in heavy metals on autism amongst infants, I would use the knowledge obtained from Blanchard, 2013 report in redesigning the whole study.

The proposed study would aim at establishing the hypothesis that toxic chemicals contribute to increased severity of autism amongst children. In ensuring that the existing causality between toxic metals and autism does not fail, the redesigned study would have its objective as aforementioned, methodology section, results, and conclusion.                       Objective forms an imperative part of the research and hence the new design of research would define its objective vividly.

The objective of the study would entail an assessment of levels of toxic metals found on children’ s hair samples. After the assessment, the research would aim at correlating the severity of autism amongst children with the degenerative disease with the established levels of toxic metals. It is imperative to understand such relatively clear objective of research directly explain the causality existing between the severity of autism and toxic metals.                       In the methodology section, the study would observe the inherent principles of designing research methods including recruitment of participants, selection criteria, analytical tools, and regulation of results.

For instance, the study in design would recruit approximately 50 children between the age of 3 and 9 years. The selection criteria for the children would entail a comprehensive analysis that ensures recruitment of only 50 participants with autism problem. The selection process of study subjects would ensure compliance of the study objective with causality correctness. During the research, the study would measure and record the severity of autism amongst the selected study subjects using the Childhood autism rating scale.

Thereafter, an analysis of hair samples for the mineral level content would help in making a comparison with the autism data obtained (Blaurock-Busch et al. , 38).                       After analysis of mineral level in all the hair samples of recruited subjects, the study would conduct a comparative analysis to establish rejection or acceptance of the hypotheses. It is essential to comprehend that the research would also conduct a similar control study as aforementioned using children that do not suffer from autism.

In achieving results, the study would compare concentrations of mineral content in both the control and study subjects. The specific mineral analysis would target arsenic, aluminium, lead, vanadium, mercury and other known toxic heavy metals. In the final part of the new redesign of the study, a conclusion section would restate the objective, provide results, and discuss relative to scientific rationale. The comprehensive redesign of Blanchard, 2013 report would clearly address the cause and effects between the two variables.


Blanchard, Kathleen. Autism linked to specific toxic metals. EmaxHealth. February 27, 2013. Web. November 26, 2014. Accessed from

Blaurock-Busch, Eleonor., Amin, Omnia R., Hani H. Dessoki,C and Rabahd, Thanaa. "Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Hair and Severity of Symptoms among Children with Autism." Journal of Clinical Medicine (2012): 36-48. Print.

Mankiw, Nicholas G. Principles of Economics. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western, 2011. Print.

Download free paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us