"Functions of the Reproductive System" is a great example of a paper on reproduction. Questions: A. Why are the testes located outside of the body in the scrotum? This is dictated by androgens that activate the development of the Wolffian system. The development of a male is different only in the fact that as soon as androgens are exposed to the fetus, it starts the development of male primary sex characteristics instead of the female characteristics (Mullerian system). What process occurs in the seminiferous tubules? This is the structure in the testes in which meiosis occurs. Why do sperm and egg go through meiosis? They undergo meiosis because only half the chromosomes are required from each to fuse into a zygote.
Mitosis produces 2 identical daughter cells whereas meiosis produces 4 haploid cells. Besides, processes such as crossing over are what create the genetic diversity that occurs in reproducing organisms. Name the various follicles you can find inside a typical ovary. Oocyte and ovum How is the endocrine system involved in reproduction? The endocrine system is what secretes the hormones that prompt the body to undergo processes necessary for reproduction.
This can mean the secretion of hormones such as FSH. This is regulated via the neurological system through the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. What hormones lead to the maturation of both sperm and egg? Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) Exercise 2: Dissection of the Reproductive Structures of the Cat Questions: A. Why are some reproductive structures hard to find in the cat? In both sexes, the reproductive structures are located within the body in approximately the same area. How does the anatomical arrangement of the organs in the cat compare to that of a human? In females, the structure of the reproductive system allows for a greater yield in offspring which is why it is more common in cats to have multiple litters versus the one type in humans. C.
Explain the differences you saw in the cat versus a human relative to the following organs and structures (if you had a female cat, do only the female structures, and if you had a male cat do only the male structures): uterine tubes and oviducts: ductus deferens and its entry into the urethra: urethral and vaginal openings in the female: location of the prostate gland: location of ovaries: seminal vesicles: The ductus deferens into the urethra looks more forked like a snake’ s tongue versus the cylindrical shape in humans.
In the cat, the prostate gland sits under the bladder. D. How is the cat uterus modified to carry several fetuses? (If you had a male cat, refer to the female reproductive procedure). The uterus can expand to accommodate multiple fetuses. This can happen because many of the other female reproductive organs are smaller than they are in humans and are structurally located differently. Exercise 3: Pregnancy and Human Development Questions: 1.
When does fertilization occur? Fertilization occurs when the sperm meets the egg to form a zygote. At what point does an embryo turn into a fetus? Describe what a baby looks like at this stage of development. At the end of 8 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus. In this case, most of the major structures are formed. This includes some fundamental organs such as the heart and outer skin as well as a rudimentary neurological system. At what point is the brain fully developed? Describe the activities this allows the baby to do? At the beginning of the third trimester, the baby has a brain.
This allows the baby to feel rudimentary motions as well as execute gross movements such as kicking. Besides, other senses such as hearing and light can be sensed. Basic autonomic functions are also regulated. What is “ quickening” ? What is Lanugo? Give a possible function for Lanugo? When do these two phenomena occur? “ Quickening” is the first movement that is felt by the mother. Lanugo is a fur type coating that is shed by babies after they are born but is usually still there in the case of premature birth.
It can function as an added layer of protection in temperature regulation. Why is the 28th week a crucial point in the development of the fetus? This is when the fetus starts showing signs of homeostatic control. This means that the hypothalamus is starting to help regulate hormonal and critical physiological functions for the fetus. Besides, it also shows signs of going through rhythms that are dictated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus such as sleep cycles. Describe some of the physiological events that occur in a baby’ s body as it is born and leaves the womb behind.
The metabolic and autonomic functions take over becoming fully independent. Besides, sensory systems start assimilating information such as light, sound, smell, etc. As a result, the infant’ s senses are dull at birth. As they experience more senses, these sensory organs develop (ie development of eyesight). Conclusion: How would the removal of the testes or the ovaries affect a man or a woman? Be sure to mention the hormonal implications of such a procedure. Removal of these organs would affect the sex characteristics of the body.
For example, women might not develop curved characteristics or breasts. In men, there might be less muscle tone, not a deep voice, less hair growth, etc. This is dictated by hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, androgens, LH, and FSH.