"Respiratory Diseases: Asthma" is a wonderful example of a paper on the respiratory system. Asthma is a multifaceted disease characterized by prolonged inflammation in the lower air passages, thereby impeding breathing and leading to recurring outbreaks of coughing, gasping, breathlessness, and chest tightness. Asthma is one of the most serious allergic diseases affecting an increasing number of children in developed countries. Worldwide, asthma cases are increasing at a rate of 50% per year and by the year 2020, it is estimated to be the third leading cause of death. (Mahdi Bijanzadeh, Padukudru A.
Maheshand Nallur B. Ramachandra. 2011) Causes of Asthma: Epidemiological studies show that the increase in cases of asthma over the last 25 years is a result of changes in lifestyle and environment because changes in genetic makeup would take generations. Also, asthma was more prevalent in urban areas. In order to establish the effect of genes on asthma, genotype markers were used to identify approximately twenty to twenty-five thousand genes that are associated with asthma. The simplest of polymorphisms was used to expand genetic association studies.
Furthermore, familial studies were compared with individual studies to establish that asthma has genetic tendencies. (Carole Ober, Tsung-Chieh Yao)Two studies confirm this. The first study by Shwartz reported that asthma was prevalent in 6.6% of the 1634 relatives of asthmatic patients while only 1% of the 1790 relatives of the control group. In addition, the study by Sibbald et al shows that 13% of the first-degree relatives of asthmatics have asthma themselves while only 4% of the relatives of the control group had the disease. (Mahdi Bijanzadeh, Padukudru A.
Maheshand Nallur B. Ramachandra. 2011) Evolutionary biology tries to explain why present-day humans are vulnerable to diseases such as asthma. It is discovered adaption influences pathogens through natural selection. Boulton et al reported polymorphisms in the genes carrying asthma when the individual was exposed to tobacco smoke in the early stages of life. Asthma can also be triggered by exposure to animal fur or sand. (Mahdi Bijanzadeh, Padukudru A. Maheshand Nallur B. Ramachandra. 2011) Numerous longitudinal studies offer proof for distinctive successive growth of atopic appearances during childhood: atopic dermatitis and food allergy normally advance in childhood followed by asthma and allergic rhinitis.
This is called an ‘ atopic march’ . Around 30% of youngsters with atopic dermatitis acquire asthma, and nearly 66% acquire indicators of allergic rhinitis. Also, 19% to 38% of patients with allergic rhinitis suffer from coinciding asthma. (Carole Ober, Tsung-Chieh Yao. 2011) Who it affects: Multicultural studies in India show that poverty and malnutrition are provokers of the disease. In the largest multi-centric studies in India, it was revealed that females, lower socioeconomic status, family history of asthma, urban dwellers, and increasing age were the causes of asthma.
As already established asthma has genetic tendencies and the study shows that children before the age of 10 and adults younger than 30 years of age were most susceptible to asthma. Also, asthma was more prevalent in urban areas, with patients with allergies being more prone to the disease. (Mahdi Bijanzadeh, Padukudru A. Maheshand Nallur B. Ramachandra. 2011) Symptoms: Asthma is a varied disease illustrated by sporadic swelling of the airways leading to permanent airway remodeling and inflexible airflow limitation.
Asthma, according to international guidelines includes the three areas of symptoms: (1) variable airway obstruction, (2) airway hyperresponsiveness (bronchial hyperreactivity), and (3) airway inflammation. Different forms of asthma exist with different crucial symptoms: asthma, characterized by poor control and many exacerbations, frail asthma, with frenzied swings in peak flow, and severe asthma with fungal sensitization, as well as airflow restraint. (Kathleen C, Barnes. 2011) Treatment: Hospitals check for allergic sensitization to aeroallergens (grass and tree pollen, house dust mite, cockroach, cat, dog), fungus (namely Aspergillusfumigatus, Alternariaalternata, Cladosporiumherbarum, Penicilliumchrysogenum, Candida albicans, Trichophytonmentagrophytes, Botrytis cinerea), and nutrition allergens (peanut, milk, egg), etc.
These allergies may help people to reduce exposure to these elements in order to lower asthmatic attacks. Hospitals likewise use spirometry to monitor the development of lung growth over time. Epidemiological proof suggests that spirometry data in severe asthma can be traced for years and help people to see if their respiratory condition is deteriorating thus helping to administer quick medical help. High-resolution CT scanning (HRCT) is done for diagnostic assessment if the patient is non-atopic or if bronchiectasis is assumed.
In school-age children with manifold exacerbations doctors increase the standard quantity of inhaled corticosteroids to eliminate interim sputum eosinophilia. Furthermore, for type 1 asthma (brittle) the treatment is high-dose formoterol, for neutrophilic asthma oral theophyllines is administered. (Carole Ober, Tsung-Chieh Yao. 2011)
Prof Andrew Bush and SejalSaglani.Management of severe asthma in children. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3471126/
Kathleen C Barnes.Genetic Studies of the Etiology of Asthma. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131830/
Carole Ober1 and Tsung-Chieh Yao2. The Genetics of Asthma and Allergic Disease: A 21st Century Perspective. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3151648/
Mahdi Bijanzadeh, Padukudru A. Mahesh and Nallur B. Ramachandra. An understanding of the genetic basis of asthma. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181014/